Sunday, October 31, 2010

The Characters in”Animal Farm”

(A) ANIMALS
(1) MAJOR
An Old and Wise Boar, the Champion of
the Rights of Animals
Major is the name of an old boar on Manor Farm which is owned by Mr. Jones Major is twelve years old and is a majestic-locking pig with a wise and benevolent appearance.
We meet him in the very opening chapter when, after having seen a strange dream during the night he summons a secret meeting of all the animals on the farm and makes them conscious of their miserable plight as working animals on the farm owned by Mr. Jones. Major points out to the animals that Mr. Jones has been reaping the fruits of all the labour and toil of the animals while not allowing to the animals even the bare minimum of food for their subsistence. He tells the animals that their lives are miserable, laborious, and short. No animal in England, he says, knows the meaning of happiness or leisure: no animal in England is free; the life of an animal is misery and slavery. The responsibility for this state of affairs, says Major, rests on Mr. Jones, a human being. In fact, human beings are responsible for all the sufferings and hardships which the animals have to endure. Man is the only real enemy the animals have. If man is removed from the scene, the root cause of hunger and overwork would be abolished for ever.
A Rebellion, Forecast by Major
Major in his speech to the animals at this secret meeting also makes them conscious of the fact that every animal is slaughtered sooner or later. Cows, pigs, hens, sheep—no animal escapes the cruel knife in the end. As all the evils in the life of the animals have their source in the tyranny of human beings, the animals should rebel against human beings. Rebellion, says Major, must come sooner or later. Major exhorts all the animals to become united in a perfect comradeship and to struggle to overthrow Mr. Jones who has mercilessly been, and still is, exploiting them. Whatever goes upon two legs, is an enemy, says Major. He then gives to the animals some guidelines for their day-to-day behaviour. Finally, Major sings an old song which he used to know in his infancy and which had come back to him in his dream during the previous night. This song is called "Beasts of England”. Having heard the song, most of the animals pick up the tune and some of the words, and they join Major in singing the song.
The Allegorical Significance of Major
Subsequently, the animals on Manor Farm drive away Mr. Jones from the farm and become the masters of the farm. It is Major who provides the motivating force behind the animals' rebellion against Mr. Jones. The speech which Major delivers to the animals is inflammatory. It is with this speech in their minds that the animals decide to unite and forcibly evict their cruel and tyrannical master, Mr. Jones, from the farm. In fact, Major symbolizes Karl Marx, the German philosopher and economist who taught that the working classes were exploited by the capitalists and that the working people should rise in revolt against the capitalists in order to overthrow them and acquire the power to govern themselves in accordance with the principles of justice and equality. The guidelines suggested by Major symbolize the Communist Manifesto, man in the guidelines signifying the whole capitalist class.
(2) NAPOLEON
A Fierce-Looking Boar, With Secret Designs
Napoleon, like Major, is a boar on Manor Farm. We meet him in the second chapter of the book, and thereafter we find him becoming more and more important in the story till he dominates the scene. He is described as a large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boa, not much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting things done according to his own wishes. After Mr. Jones has been driven away from Manor Farm by the united onslaught of the animals against him and his men, two pigs emerge as the leaders. These two leaders are both pigs, named Napoleon and Snowball. A rivalry soon begins between these two leading pigs, and each tries to become supreme. While Snowball is quite outspoken, Napoleon works in a secretive manner. Napoleon takes the initiative in announcing that all the milk and the apples would be reserved for the pigs and that the other animals would have no share in these two items of food, but Snowball too agrees with Napoleon so far as this announcement is concerned. When the two bitches on the farm, namely Jessie and Bluebell, give birth to a number of puppies. Napoleon takes away the new-born puppies from their mothers, saying that he would himself rear the puppies and look after their well-being. He then begins secretly to rear these puppies and to train them in accordance with his own private designs. The puppies soon grow into fierce-looking dogs of whom Napoleon subsequently makes repeated use for his own purposes.
Napoleon's Use of Force to Expel Snowball
Napoleon differs with Snowball regarding the latter's proposal to build a windmill Napoleon is openly scornful of Snowball's project of the windmill and goes to the length of urinating over the plan of the windmill which Snowball has drawn with a piece of chalk on the floor of a shed. When Napoleon perceives that he would be outvoted at the assembly of the animals summoned to discuss Snowball's project. Napoleon makes use of his fierce dogs to attack Snowball and to drive Snowball away from Manor Farm (which was renamed "Animal Farm" after the eviction of Mr. Jones). Napoleon now becomes the sole leader on Animal Farm. And he has achieved this position partly by deceit but chiefly by force.
His Repudiation of Democratic Procedures
Napoleon, who is now all the time protected by his fierce dogs, announces that henceforward the meetings of the animals, which were held as a matter of routine to discuss various matters pertaining to the farm, would no longer be held. He tells the animals that in future all questions relating to the farm would be settled by a special committee of pigs, presided over by himself. The animals, he says, would assemble on Sunday mornings only to salute the flag, sing the song "Beasts of England", and receive their orders for the week. Thus Napoleon discards the democratic practice of all the animals meeting once a week to discuss various matters and take decisions by a majority vote. Some of the animals, including a few pigs, protest against Napoleon's announcement, but they are all silenced by the threatening growls of Napoleon's dogs.
His Surprising Announcements
Another announcement that Napoleon makes after a few weeks is that the windmill would be built after all. Squealer, who serves as Napoleon's propagandist, tells the animals that Napoleon had always been inwardly in favour of building a windmill and that his opposition to it, when Snowball made the proposal, was just a matter of "tactics". According to Napoleon's next announcement, the animals are required to work on Sunday afternoons as well. Anyone absenting himself from this work would have his rations reduced by half, according to this announcement.
His Violations of the Commandments
Soon afterwards, Napoleon announces   that  he   would   begin trading with   the  neighbouring farms    because   he   needs  certain essential commodities and materials for the welfare of Animal Farm. He demands a sacrifice from  the hens  who  are  now asked  to surrender their eggs to  be sold in the market instead of hatching them to produce chickens. Napoleon coerces the hens into agreeing to   his   demand.   Napoleon   then   engages   a  human   being.  Mr. Whymper,   to act  an intermediary between himself and the human beings with whom he has   started  having trading  and  commercial relations. All this is of course,     contrary     to    the     Seven Commandments  which  had   been formulated by him and Snowball immediately  after  the  expulsion   of   Mr. Jones  and  which  were intended to serve as the guiding principles of conduct for all the inmates     of    Animal    Farm.     Napoleon    violates  yet   another Commandment when he decides that the pigs as a   class   would live in Mr. Jones's farmhouse and  would   sleep  in   the   beds in which human beings used to sleep.   Squealer,   of course, tries   to justify this decision in his talks with the other animals.
His Alibi for Every Misfortune
When the completed windmill is brought down by the force of a furious winter gale. Napoleon holds Snowball responsible for the destruction of the windmill even though Snowball is nowhere in the picture. In fact, every calamity, every hardship, and setback which is experienced by the animals is attributed by Napoleon to the mischief being made by Mr. Snowball even when it is obvious that Snowball has not been seen by anyone on or near the farm. In this way Napoleon gets an alibi for every misfortune that overtakes Animal Farm.
Cheated By Mr. Frederick
Napoleon now starts negotiations for the sale of some timber with two neighbouring farmers, Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick. He comes to some sort of understanding with Mr. Frederick who gives him cash in exchange for the timber. But soon it is discovered that the currency notes given by Mr. Frederick are forged. Soon afterwards Mr. Frederick invades Animal Farm, contrary to the understanding which had been reached by him with Napoleon. However, Mr. Frederick and his men are defeated by the animals and driven away.
His Ruthlessness and Barbarity
Another arbitrary step which Napoleon takes is the elimination and liquidation of all those animals whom he suspects of secretly opposing him and his policies. He calls a meeting of all the animals and demands that all those animals who have secretly been working against Animal Farm should come forward and confess their guilt. Quite a large number of animals come forward one after the other and confess their guilt. All these are immediately put to death by Napoleon's dogs under Napoleon's orders. But it becomes evident to us that the confessions are not spontaneous and that these confessions have been made by the animals under duress. No doubt is now left in our minds about the ruthlessness and barbarity of Napoleon in his attempts to rule Animal Farm as its undisputed and unchallenged dictator.
A Totalitarian Regime, Established By Napoleon
Another Commandment is violated when Napoleon begins to drink whisky and allows the other pigs also to drink it. He also orders the sowing of barley over a larger area because he plans to set up a brewery on the farm in order to make beer for the pigs including himself. As there is a food-shortage, Napoleon orders a reduction in the rations of all the animals except in those of the pigs and the dogs. Another step that Napoleon takes is to order the holding of when he calls "Spontaneous Demonstrations" intended to show the animals’ support of him and his policies. He now invest himself with new dignities and honours, and gets himself elected the President of Animal Farm which is proclaimed a Republic. Yet another step taken by Napoleon in violation of the Seven Commandments is to direct the pigs to walk on their hind legs. Napoleon himself too now begins to walk on his hind legs. The front legs now serve as arms and hands and are used to hold whips by means of which the pigs supervise the work being done by the other animals under their direction. The Seven Commandments are now reduced to one single Commandment under Napoleon's orders, and this single Commandment reads as follow: All Animals Are Equal But Some Animals Are More Equal Than Other.” Thus the ideal of equality and comradeship is new completely discarded and the repudiation of this ideal is given a formal sanction. At the end we find Napoleon establishing friendly relations with Mr. Pilkington and other human farmers. Napoleon, at this stage announces that the word “comrade" would no longer be used by the animals at his farm when addressing one another, and that the farm would henceforward be known by its original name which was "Manor Farm".
Stalin's Betrayal of the Russian Revolution, Exposed
Animal Farm is an allegorical satire. Napoleon, the pig, here symbolizes Stalin who rose to be a ruthless dictator of Russia and who suppressed all the freedoms which had been promised to the proletariat after the Communist Revolution of 1917. Through the portrayal of Napoleon, the author has exposed to the readers Stalin's betrayal of the ideals of the Russian Revolution.
(3) SNOWBALL
The Seven Commandments, Read Out By Snowball
Snowball is described as a more lively pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive, but not having the same depth of character. When the rebellion against Mr. Jones has been effected, Snowball comes into prominence as one of the two leaders of the animals, the other being Napoleon. Snowball is the one who throws into fire the ribbons with which the horses' manes and tails had usually been decorated by Mr. Jones's men on market days. Snowball now declares that ribbons should be regarded as clothes and that clothes are the mark of a human being. All animals, says Snowball, should go naked. After all the aimals, led by Napoleon, have inspected the farm buildings, and Mr. Jones's farmhouse, Snowball declares that it is yet early in the morning and that they have a long day before them. He informs them that the hay harvest is to be begun by them that very day and that they should get ready for the work which lies ahead. However, before taking the animals into the fields, Snowball has something more important to do. In collaboration with Napoleon, he has already prepared the Seven Commandments which embody the principles of ''Animalism". These Seven Commandments are now to be inscribed on one of the walls of the big barn, and Snowball climbs up a ladder in order to accomplish this task. He then reads the Severs Commandments aloud for the benefit of the animals and all the animals nod in complete agreement.
His Efforts to Bring About Improvements on the Farm
Soon afterwards Snowball gets busy doing organizational
work on the farm. He forms a number of Animal Committees
to bring about improvements on the farm. These committees include the Egg Production Committee for the hens, the Clean Tails League for the cows, the Wild Comrades' Re-education Committee, and the Whiter Wool Movement for the sheep. He also institutes classes in reading and writing for the animals. He is tireless in making efforts of this kind to promote the welfare of the farm. When Snowball declares that the essence of all the Seven Commandments can be summed up in a single maxim (“Four legs good, two legs bad”), the birds object to this maxim on the ground that they have only two legs. But Snowball proves to the birds that they have four  legs  each   by  his theory that a bird's wing is an organ of propulsion and not of manipulation, and has therefore to be regarded as a
leg. Thus here we find Snowball adopting a false logic or sophistry in order to include the birds among the four-legged animals.
Disagreements with Napoleon
In the beginning Snowball and Napoleon work together in collaboration, but soon they begin to differ with each other, and the differences between them go on increasing. In the beginning, Snowball agrees with Napoleon that the milk and apples should be reserved exclusively for the pigs but afterwards they disagree on almost every issue.
His Conspicuous Role is Repulsing the Attack By Jones
When Mr. Jones and his men invade the farm in order to re-capture it, Snowball plays a conspicuous role in defending it. Snowball has been studying an old took describing Julius Caesar's campaigns and had learnt something about the strategy of fighting. On the basis of his superior knowledge, he is put in charge of the defensive operations, it is on account of the tactics and the strategy employed by Snowball that Mr. Jones and his men are defeated in the battle and are driven away from the farm. In the course of the fighting, Snowball is wounded by the pellets fired by Mr. Jones from his gun. After the battle, Snowball makes a speech, emphasizing the need for all animals to be ready to die for Animal Farm if need be. A military decoration called "Animal Hero, First Class", is then conferred upon Snowball for his bravery in the battle.
Differences with Napoleon about the Windmill and About the Strategy of Defence
Snowball's disagreements with Napoleon now become more frequent. Each of the two leaders has his own followers, and the debates between them at the meetings of the animals often become furious. At these meetings Snowball often wins over the majority by his brilliant speeches, but Napoleon is able to convass support for himself by working behind the scenes. Snowball, having made a close study of some books dealing with agricultural operations, now formulates several plans for innovations and improvements on the farm. He talks in a learned manner about field-drains and other matters, and he works out a scheme for all the animals to drop their dung directly in the fields, at a different spot everyday, to save the labour of cartage. Snowball also suggests the construction of a windmill to produce electricity for the farm. Napoleon treats the proposal about the windmill with scorn. Snowball also differences with Napoleon so far as the question of the defence of the farm is concerned. According to Napoleon, the animals should procure fire-arms and train themselves. In the use of them. But, according to Snowball, the animals should send out more and more pigeons to stir up rebellion among the animals on the other farms. Snowball argues that if, rebellions occur everywhere, the animals on Animal Farm would have no need to defend themselves.
Driven Away From the Farm by Napoleon's Fierce Dogs
Snowball spends a lot of time on working out the details about the construction of the proposed windmill. With a piece of chalk he draws the complete plan of the windmill on the wooden floor of a shed. However, when a meeting of the animals is held to decide finally whether the construction of the windmill should be undertaken, Napoleon suspects that the vote would go in Snowball's favour and he gives a signal to his fierce dogs who attack Snowball and drive him away from the farm. Snowball is never thereafter seen on Animal Farm, and Napoleon becomes supreme. Subsequently, Snowball is defamed and slandered by Napoleon, with Squealer assisting Napoleon by carrying on anti-Snowball propaganda among the animals. Whenever any hardship or setback or misfortune is experienced on Animal Farm, Napoleon attributes it to the mischief being done by Snowball, even though Snowball is nowhere in the picture. The campaign of slander against Snowball by Napoleon, helped by Squealer, never ceases, so that when Napoleon once falls ill because he has taken too much whisky, it is given out that Snowball has managed to poison Napoleon's food through one of his secret agents.
Stalin's Rival, Trotsky, Represented by Snowball
Snowball represents Trotsky who was regarded by Stalin as a rival and who was expelled by Stalin first from the Russian Communist Party and then from Russia. After his expulsion from his homeland, Trotsky took refuge in various countries, one after the other, eventually settling down in Mexico where he was assassinated, presumably by a secret agent of Stalin's regime.
(4) SQUEALER
His Persuasive Powers
Squealer is described as a small, fat pig, with round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble movements, and a shrill voice. He is a brilliant talker and, whenever he argues some difficult point, he skips from side to side, whisking his tail, as a means of adding to the persuasive effect of his argument. By his persuasive powers Squealer can turn black into white. In other words, he can lend to a falsehood the appearance of a convincing truth.
His Defence of the Decision about Milk and Apples
Squealer    collaborates    with   Napoleon   and    Snowball   in developing Major's teachings into a complete system of thought called "Animalism", and then formulating the Seven Commandments. When Napoleon announces, with    Snowball's consent, that the milk and the apples would be  reserved  exclusively for the pigs, Squealer is deputed to explain the whole  thing  to  all the  animals and  to convince them about the need to reserve these items of food for the pigs only.   Squealer  tells the animals that, by reserving the milk and the apples for themselves, the pigs are  doing nothing selfish.   The sole object of the pigs in consuming milk  and apples is to preserve their health.   Milk and apples, he says, contain ingredients which are absolutely necessary to the well-being  of pigs who are the brain-workers and on whom the whole management and organization of the farm depend.   Squealer  also  says  that,  if the pigs  do not consume milk and  apples,  they would  fail in the performance of their duties and that, in case that happens, Mr. Jones would  come  back.  When   Squealer holds out  this threat of Mr. Jones's coming back to the farm, the animals  feel convinced  by Squealer's logic.   And, of course, when Squealer argues this point, he skips from side to side, whisking his tail.
His Defence of All Decisions Taken by Napoleon
From this time onwards Squealer becomes a propagandist on behalf of the two leaders but, when Snowball is driven away from the farm. Squealer has to carry on propaganda in favour of Napoleon only and has to malign and discredit Snowball as much as possible in the eyes of the animals. After the expulsion of Snowball, this propagandist begins to eulogise Napoleon and to exalt him. He tells the animals that Comrade Napoleon has taken extra labour upon himself after having driven away Snowball who was an enemy of Animal Farm. He tells the animals that Comrade Napoleon firmly believes in the equality of all animals. He justifies Napoleon's decision not to hold any more meetings of the animals to discuss the affairs of the farm, on the ground that the animals would make wrong decisions if the decisions were left to their judgment. Loyalty to Comrade Napoleon, he goes on to say, is imperative. "Discipline, iron discipline, is the watchword", says Squealer. It is because of Squealer's persuasive way of speaking that Boxer adopts a second motto which is : "Napoleon is always right." When Napoleon decides to build the windmill which he had previously opposed. Squealer explains to the other animals that Napoleon had never in reality been opposed to the windmill and that his opposition had been really a device to get rid of Snowball who was a dangerous character and a bad influence. Squealer describes Napoleon's whole attitude towards the windmill as "tactics". Squealer repeats this word "tactics" several times, skipping from side to side and whisking his tail with a merry laugh.
His Brazen Lies, to Support Napoleon
Thereafter, on every occasion, Squealer justifies every decision, every announcement, and every order issued by Napoleon. When there is a shortage of food, Squealer reads out inflated figures of food-production on the farm in order to convince the animals that there is no food shortage; and he does so in spite of the fact that the rations of the animals have been reduced almost by half. As the pigs and the dogs continue to get their full rations, Squealer now declares that too rigid an equality in rations is contrary to the principles of Animalism. Squealer is very ingenious in spreading false propaganda against Snowball. Whenever anything goes wrong on the farm, Squealer attributes the responsibility to Snowball. On one occasion he tells the animals that Snowball has sold himself to Mr. Frederick of Pinchfield Farm and is instigating that man to attack Animal Farm in order to capture it. Squealer goes to the extent of saying that Snowball had been in league with Mr. Jones in the days when Mr. Jones owned the farm and even at the time when Mr. Jones had invaded the farm in order to recapture it. Thus Squealer proves his capacity to tell the most outrageous lies and to represent them as truths. He carries on his false propaganda against Snowball and in favour of Napoleon in a most brazen and shameless manner. When Boxer is sold by Napoleon to a horse-slaughterer. Squealer consoles the animals with the lie that Boxer has been sent to a veterinary hospital where he will be treated by specialists. When Boxer has been slaughtered by the slaughterer, Squealer tells the animals that Boxer has died in the veterinary hospital and that all the efforts of the doctors had failed to save Boxer's life. Squealer also now invents a lie that, while dying, Boxer had said: "Long live Comrade Napoleon! Napoleon is always right."
The Symbolic Significance of Squealer
Squealer symbolizes the propaganda machinery which every totalitarian government maintains to glorify its achievements and also to throw dust into the eyes of the people. Here, of course, Squealer has a specific function in symbolizing Stalin's propaganda machinery. It is also possible that Orwell intended Squealer to symbolize the servile Russian Press which always supports and justifies the policies of the Communist government. The Soviet News Agency, Tass, for instance, always supports the decisions of the Russian government.
(5) BOXER
His Steadiness of Character, and Enormous
Powers of Work
Boxer is a cart-horse owned by Mr. Jones. He is an enormous beast, nearly eighteen hands high, and as strong as any two ordinary horses put together. There is a white stripe down his nose, giving him a somewhat stupid appearance. He is not an animal of first-rate intelligence, but he is universally respected at the farm for his steadiness of character and tremendous powers of work.
His Fighting Capacity, and His Gentle Nature
The chief characteristics of Boxer are his willingness to work hard, his enormous powers of endurance, his loyalty to the farm, and his gentle nature. Boxer plays a tremendous role in the Battle of the Cowshed, because his physical strength proves to be of great help to the animals in the fight against Mr. Jones and his men when they invade the farm to re-capture it. Boxer becomes the object of the admiration of everybody. He now adopts a motto which is: "I will work harder." Later he adds a second motto to the first: "Napoleon is always right." He, however, feels very sorry to have hit one of the human beings, a stable-lad, with too much force. It seems to Boxer that the lad has died of the blow which Boxer had given to him, and so he says: "He is dead. I had no intention of doing that. I have no wish to take life, not even a human life."
His Incapacity to Learn to Read
For his bravery in the Battle of the Cowshed Boxer receives a medal called "Animal Hero, Second Class". He now starts working for half an hour extra everyday. His great strength proves to be a great asset in the building of the windmill. It is only because of his strength that it becomes possible for the animals to drag huge stones to the top of the hill from where these stones are allowed to slide down and fall on the stony ground below in order to be shattered into fragments which can then be used for the building of the walls of the windmill. While Boxer’s physical strength and powerful muscles do him great credit, he finds the process of learning to read a difficult affair. In fact, he finds it impossible to learn to read; and he cannot go beyond the first four letters of the alphabet.
His Reactions to Napoleon's Violations of the Seven Commandments
Boxer feels uneasy when the pigs, under the leadership of Napoleon and Squealer; begin to violate the various Commandments, but he does not rebel against the leadership because, in the first place, he cannot read the Commandments himself and secondly because he is essentially a mild-tempered animal. When the windmill has to be built for the second and then for the third time, Boxer is one of the few animals not to lose heart. When all sorts of malicious stories are spread by Squealer against Snowball, Boxer again feels uneasy but has to reconcile himself to the position taken up by Napoleon because he has already adopted the motto: "Napoleon is always right." When, for instance, Squealer says that Snowball had been in league with Mr. Jones, Boxer cannot believe it because he recalls that Snowball had fought bravely at the Battle of the Cowshed, that Snowball had been wounded in the course of the battle, and that Snowball had been honoured with the award of "Animal Hero, First Class". But, when Squealer says that Comrade Napoleon has stated categorically that Snowball had been Mr. Jones's agent from the very beginning. Boxer replies : "If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right." Again, when Napoleon has carried out a massacre of his supposed opponents on the farm, Boxer is very upset. But his reaction to this brutality committed by Napoleon is again passive. His comment on what has happened is typical of his character. Says he:
I do not understand it. I would not have believed that
such things could happen at our farm. It must be due to some fault in ourselves. The solution, as I see it, is to work harder. From now onwards I shall get up a full hour earlier in the mornings.
His Tragic End
Boxer meets a very sad end. When the windmill is being rebuilt for the second time, he again works very hard even though he has become somewhat older than before and is nearing the time of his retirement. Clover and Benjamin, who are his well-wishers, warn him to take care of his health but he pays no attention. Late one evening, when Boxer is dragging a big stone towards the site of the windmill, he falls down and is unable to get up. Blood trickles out of his mouth, and it is evident to him that his lungs have burst. Squealer and Napoleon are immediately informed of the mishap. Napoleon says that he would send Boxer to the veterinary hospital in the nearby town of Willingdon, but actually sells him to a horse-slaughterer. Boxer, who had always served Animal Farm faithfully and had been unfaltering in his loyalty to Napoleon, is very meanly and shabbily treated by Napoleon who proves utterly ungrateful and callous by selling the sick Boxer to a knacker. This is perhaps the most poignant situation in the whole novel. Boxer's end is really tragic, and our hearts are filled with great sympathy for him.
His Symbolic Significance
Boxer symbolizes the hard-working and suffering proletariat in Communist Russia. The fate which he meets is the same which millions of the working class people must have met during the long years of Stalinist regime in Russia and which the working classes must have met in other totalitarian countries too.
(6) CLOVER
A Hard-Working Animal, Faithful to Napoleon
Clover is a stout, motherly mare approaching middle life, who has already given birth to four foals when the story begins. Like Boxer, she becomes a very faithful disciple of Napoleon and Snowball when the rebellion against Mr. Jones has been completed; and she remains faithful to Napoleon after Snowball has been driven away from the farm by Napoleon's fierce dogs. Like Boxer, she accepts the pigs as her teachers and absorbs everything that they tell her; and, like Boxer, she passes on to the other animals what she has herself learnt from the pigs. Again, like Boxer, she never fails to attend the meeting of the animals and to sing the song called "Beasts of England". When the work of harvesting hay is being done on the farm, she and Boxer harness themselves to the horse-rake and tramp steadily round and round the field with a pig walking behind and giving them the necessary directions. She and Boxer work whole-heartedly at all times. In this respect, Clover differs from Mollie, the other mare, who is a shirker. Clover is not very good at learning to read. Although she is able to learn the whole alphabet, she cannot put words together. Whenever she wants to read through the Seven Commandments, she seeks the help of Muriel, the goat, who has learnt to read better even than the dogs.
Her Attachment to Boxer
Clover is a close friend of Boxer and spends a lot of her time with him. She is Boxer's true well-wisher. She sometimes warns him to be careful not to overstrain himself by working too hard, though Boxer never listens to her. When Boxer falls down to the ground on account of sheer exhaustion while working to rebuild the windmill, she feels very solicitous about him. Seeing the blood trickling out of his mouth, she drops to her knees at his side and asks him how he is feeling. It is she who immediately sends word about the mishap to Squealer, while she herself remains by Boxer's side like Benjamin who also does the same, keeping the flies off Boxer. During Boxer's illness, Clover spends all her spare time by Boxer's side, administering medicines and talking to him. When she learns from Benjamin that Boxer is being taken away by a horse-slaughterer, she raises an alarm. She then shouts to Boxer, saying, "Boxer, Boxer! Get out of the van! Get out quickly! They are taking you to your death!” However, she does not succeed in saving Boxer's life because the driver of the van speeds away.
Clover's Reaction to Napoleon's Violations
of the Commandments
Clover, like Boxer, feels very uneasy whenever Napoleon deviates from the Seven Commandments, but she feels quite helpless every time. For instance, when the pigs, headed by Napoleon, move into the farmhouse and begin to live there and to sleep in the beds of the human beings, Clover remembers that the Seven Commandments had forbidden such a proceeding on the part of the animals. In order to make sure that she remembers this aright, and being unable properly to read herself, she takes Muriel with her into the barn and asks the goat to read out the Commandment which has something to say about not sleeping in beds. Muriel reads out the Commandment which, however, has already been modified under Napoleon's orders and which now runs as follows: ''No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets." Clover, however, recalls that the Commandment did not originally mention sheets, though she has to remain quiet with the thought that perhaps her memory is not serving her right. Similarly, when Napoleon has punished his supposed opponents among the animals with death, Clover recalls one of the Commandments which had said that no animal would kill any other animal. Clover's eyes are filled with tears on this occasion. She feels deeply distressed by what has happened because this is not the sort of thing which the animals had aimed at when they had overthrown Mr. Jones. Such scenes of terror and slaughter were not what the animals had looked forward to on that night when Old Major had first urged them to rebellion. Clover has always looked forward to a society of animals set free from hunger and from the whip, all animals equal, each working according to his capacity, the strong protecting the weak. Instead of all this, she thinks, the animals find themselves in a state in which no one dares to speak his mind; when fierce, growling dogs roam everywhere; and when the animals are torn to pieces after being made to confess their crimes. However. Clover consoles herself with the thought that the animals are still much better off than they had been in the days of Mr. Jones. In spite of her uneasiness, she decides to remain faithful to the farm, to work hard, to carry out the orders which are given to her, and to accept the leadership of Napoleon. And yet, it is not for this that she and all the other animals had worked and toiled. It was not for this that they had built the windmill and faced the bullets of Mr. Jones's gun. Such were Clover's thoughts on this occasion though she lacked the words to express them. In order to soothe her ruffled feelings, Clover then begins to sing "Beasts of England", and the other animals sitting near her begin to sing it also. But just then Squealer arrives and tells her and the other animals that the song called "Beasts of England" has been abolished and that another song has been composed to take its place. Here is yet another departure from the original code of conduct.
Her Whole-hearted Performance of Her Duties
Still brooding upon the slaughter of animals ordered by Napoleon, Clover takes Benjamin into the barn and asks him to read out to her the Sixth Commandment. Benjamin reads this Commandment which, however, now runs as follows: "No animal shall kill any other animal without cause." Clover thus finds that there is an addition of two words to this Commandment at the end; but, again thinking that perhaps her memory is playing her a trick, she remains quiet. When Napoleon orders the holding of what he has called "Spontaneous Demonstrations", Clover and Boxer gladly carry a green banner marked with the hoof and the horn and bearing the following words: "Long Live Comrade Napoleon!" Clover does her part of the duty whole-heartedly, as does Boxer.
Not Allowed to Retire
When the story ends, we find that Clover has become old and that she now feels stiff in the joints and has a tendency to rheumy eyes. She is two years past the retiring age, but has not been granted retirement. In fact, no animal has ever been allowed actually to retire. This means that every animal must continue working till he dies or till he is sold to a butcher. Thus, in the long run the fate of the animals during Napoleon's regime is no better than it was in the days of Mr. Jones.
Her Allegorical Significance
Clover, like Boxer, represents the toiling and suffering proletariat in Soviet Russia. Through Clover's reactions to Napoleon's violations of the Seven Commandments, we are made to realize how far Stalin had moved away from the original ideals of the Russian Revolution. Through Clover's feelings on various occasions, we are made to realize the injustices and cruelties perpetrated by Stalin upon the Russian people in order to keep them completely under his control.
(7) BENJAMIN
A Cynical Donkey
Benjamin the donkey is the oldest animal on the farm when the story begins, and he is described as "the worst tempered" of all. He seldom talks; and when he does talk, it is generally to make some cynical remark. For instance, he would say that God has given him a tail to keep the flies off, but that he would rather have no tail and no flies. He is the only one among the animals on the farm who never laughs. If asked why he never laughs, he replies that he finds nothing to laugh at.
His Philosophy of Life
Benjamin's philosophy of life is that things never really change. Having this attitude to life, he does not change at all after the rebellion against Mr. Jones and after Mr. Jones's eviction from the farm. He remains the same as before, and does his work in the same slow, obstinate way in which he had done it in Mr. Jones's time. He never shirks work, but he never volunteers for extra work either. About the Rebellion and its results, he expresses no opinion. When asked whether he is not happier now that Mr. Jones has gone, Benjamin would reply only: "Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey." The other animals have to be content with this cryptic reply. Benjamin learns to read as well as any pig, though he never exercises his reading faculty to any great extent. His view is that there is nothing worth reading; and this too shows his cynical nature.
No Hope of Improvement in the Quality of Life
When Mr. Jones and his men attack the farm in order to recapture it, Benjamin rises to the occasion and takes an active part in the fighting. Alongwith the others, he rushes forward and kicks the men with great force, lashing at them with his hoofs. When voting takes place on the issue of the building of the windmill, the animals form themselves into two parties, one supporting Snowball and the other supporting Napoleon. On this occasion Benjamin is the only animal who does not side with either of the parties. He refuses to believe either that food would become more plentiful or that the windmill would save labour. Windmill or no windmill, he says, life would go on as it has always gone on, that is, badly. This emphasizes his cynical view of life.
His Friendship with Boxer
From the very beginning, Benjamin is very friendly with Boxer and is, in fact, very devoted to him. Benjamin spends his Sundays with Boxer, both of them grazing together in the field, but never speaking. When Boxer overworks himself in the course of the building and the rebuilding of the windmill, Benjamin, like Clover, warns him against overstraining himself, though Boxer does not listen to them. When Boxer in the course of his hard work falls down and becomes seriously ill, Benjamin, like Clover, looks after him. Benjamin lies down by Boxer's side and keeps the flies off Boxer with his long tail. When Boxer is put into the horse-slaughterer's van to be taken away, it is Benjamin who comes galloping to inform all the other animals that Boxer is being taken away ; and then it is he who reads out the name of the owner of the van to the other animals. He says to the other animals: "Do you not see what is written on the side of that van?" He informs them that the van belongs to a horse-slaughterer and that Boxer is being taken to the knacker's establishment. However, the other animals as well as Benjamin feel quite helpless in the matter.
His Pessimistic View of Life, Unchanged at the End
At the end of the story we are told that old Benjamin is much the same as ever, except that he has become a little more gloomy and reticent after Boxer's death. Years after the Rebellion against Mr. Jones, only old Benjamin remembers every detail of his long life. He is still of the opinion that things can never become much better or much worse than they have been before. In his opinion, hunger, hardship, and disappointment are the unalterable law of life. Finally, it is Benjamin who reads out to Clover the Seventh Commandment which is the only Commandment left on the wall of the barn and which has considerably been modified. This Commandment now reads as follows: "All Animals Are Equal But Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others."
His Symbolic Significance
Benjamin symbolizes the stoical and cynical philosopher who does not believe that any real improvement or progress in human affairs is possible. Many of us would be inclined to agree with his point of view. After all, basically, life in Russia has not changed much since the days of the Czar who was overthrown by the revolutionaries. On coming to power, the Bolshevists or the Communists gradually became more and more autocratic till a totalitarian State was established under the dictatorship of Stalin. Materially speaking, Russia may have greatly progressed since the days of the Czar but none of the basic freedoms—freedoms of thought, speech, and action—is available to the Russian people just as none of these freedoms were available to the people during the regime of the Czar. Technologically, of course, Russia has made tremendous strides.
(8) MOLLIE
A Conceited, Pretty, White Mare
Mollie is the name of a foolish, pretty, white mare who used to draw Mr. Jones's carriage. She is a conceited creature, having too high an opinion about herself. She is fond of wearing red ribbons in her white mane and of chewing lumps of sugar. When the animals are preparing for a rebellion against Mr. Jones, Mollie asks Snowball: "Will there still be sugar after the rebellion?" This is a foolish question to which Snowball replies that there would be no sugar available after the rebellion and that she would have enough quantity of oats and hay to eat. She then asks another foolish question which is whether she would be allowed to wear ribbons in her mane after the rebellion. Snowball once again gives a negative answer, this time saying that ribbons are a mark of slavery.
Vain; Slack in Her Work; and Cowardly
Mollie is not only vain about her appearance, but is averse to work also. She does not get up early in the morning as the other animals do, and she has a way of leaving her work undone on the ground that she is having a stone stuck in her hoof. She wants to lead an easy and comfortable life. Nor is she good at reading. In fact, she refuses to learn even the alphabet. She learns only six letters from the alphabet, the six letters with which her own name is spelt. She then gets into the habit of forming these letters out of pieces of twig, decorating them with a couple of flowers, and walking round them in admiration. This behaviour again confirms us in the view that she is a vain creature. When Mr. Jones and his men invade the farm in order to recapture it, all the animals fight against the invaders with great determination and win a victory but Mollie is nowhere to be seen on this occasion. Subsequently, it is found that Mollie had fled from the scene as soon as Mr. Jones had fired his gun, and had hidden herself in her stall in the stable, with her head buried in the hay. Thus, besides being vain and being slack in her work, she is also a coward.
Her Desertion of Animal Farm
After some time, Mollie becomes more and more troublesome on the farm. She gets up late for work every morning and gives all sorts of excuses for her late-coming. She complains of pains in her body, although her appetite is excellent. She runs away from work and goes to the drinking pool where she stands, foolishly gazing at her own reflection in the water. But this is not all. She is found to be guilty of treachery towards Animal Farm because she begins to hobnob with human beings belonging to a neighbouring farm. Subsequently, Mollie leaves Animal Farm and takes up a job with a tavern-keeper in Willingdon to work as his cart-horse. Thus Mollie has proved to be a disloyal animal who deserts her own community and goes over to the enemies.
(9) MOSES, THE RAVEN
A Clever Talker; a Spy; and a Tale-Bearer
Moses is a tame raven kept by Mr. Jones as a pet. Moses is described as a spy and a tale-bearer, and also as a clever talker. He claims to know about the existence of a mysterious country called Sugarcandy Mountain to which, he says, all animals go after their deaths. Sugarcandy Mountain, according to him, is situated somewhere up in the sky, a little distance beyond the clouds. In Sugarcandy Mountain, says Moses, all the seven days of the week are Sundays, clover is in season all the year round, and lump sugar grows on the hedges. Thus Moses depicts Sugarcandy Mountain as a kind of paradise. The animals hate Moses because he merely tells tales and does not do any work. However, some of the animals believe in the existence of Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs have to argue very hard to persuade them that there is no such place. When Mr. Jones is being driven away from the farm by the animals, who are united against him, and when Mrs. Jones slips away from the farm, Moses goes after her, croaking loudly, because Moses would not like to remain behind on the farm when his masters are leaving. After all, Mr. Jones has been feeding Moses on pieces of bread soaked in beer.
His Talk About as Animals' Paradise
After several years, Moses reappears on Animal Farm. He is quite unchanged. He still does no work, and he talks in the same manner as before about Sugarcandy Mountain. He now develops a habit of sitting on a stump and talking for hours to anyone who would listen to him. Addressing the animals as comrades, he says that Sugarcandy Mountain, the happy country where all animals would rest for ever from their labours, lies up in the sky beyond the clouds. He even claims that he has personally visited Sugarcandy Mountain and has seen with his own eyes the everlasting fields of clover, and the lump sugar growing on the hedges. Many of the animals believe him because, according to them, their lives on this earth are laborious and that for this reason it is only fair to expect that a better world than this one exists somewhere. The pigs are openly contemptuous of Moses because, according to them, his stories about Sugarcandy Mountain are lies. However, the pigs let him remain on the farm without working, and permit him also to draw some beer daily with his rations.
The Symbolic Significance of Moses
Moses in the story symbolizes first the Russian Orthodox Church and subsequently the Roman Catholic Church. Moses is tolerated by the pigs on the farm because Stalin, after having repudiated religious orthodoxy, tried subsequently to mend his relations with the Pope in Rome through the good offices of a priest whom he invited to meet him and whom he tried to placate so that the priest might try to bring about some sort of understanding between the Pope and the Russian dictator. Moses' talk of Sugarcandy Mountain is typical of a priest's talk to his congregations about a heavenly life after the end of the earthly existence.
(10) MURIEL
An Intelligent White Goat with a Capacity to Read
Muriel is the name of a white goat on Animal Farm. She is quite an intelligent and clever animal who learns to read even better than the dogs who are next only to the pigs in their capacity to read. When the farm is invaded by Mr. Jones and his men who want to recapture the farm, Muriel takes an active part in the fighting against them. She is one of those who rush forward and attack the men from every side. Muriel is very friendly with Clover and, because she can read well, she reads out the Seven Commandments whenever Clover wants to consult them. For instance, it is Muriel who reads out the Sixth Commandment to Clever at Clover's request when Clover recalls that the Sixth Commandment had forbidden the animals to kill one another. When Muriel reads out the Sixth Commandment, it has already been modified by the addition of two words and now runs as follows: "No animal shall kill any other animal without cause."
An Intelligent Member of the Proletariat
Muriel has no particular symbolic significance. She is just an ordinary member of the proletariat, though she represents the literate and more intelligent sections of the proletariat.
(11, 12, 13) JESSIE, BLUEBELL. AND PINCHER
The Dogs on Animal Farm
Jessie and Bluebell are the names of two bitches on Animal Farm, while Pincher is the name of a dog. When Jessie and Bluebell give birth to their young ones, Napoleon takes away all their puppies, saying that he would personally bring up the puppies and train them. Napoleon then rears these puppies secretly and gives them the kind of training which he had in mind. In course of time, the puppies grow into fierce dogs who are very devoted to Napoleon and who carry out his commands promptly. It is these dogs who, at Napoleon's signal, pounce upon Snowball and drive him away from the farm; and it is these dogs who subsequently act as Napoleon's bodyguards and who also put to death the suspected opponents of Napoleon when Napoleon forces these supposed opponents to confess their guilt.
Symbolic of Secret Police
The fierce dogs of Napoleon symbolize the secret police through whom Stalin used to order the arrest of those who were suspected of being his opponents.
Note. In addition to the above-named animals, there are, in the story, a large number of sheep and pigeons, some cows, a large brood of ducklings, and a cat, who are not named. All these represent the common people or the working class, none of whom is able to attain any prominence.
The Sheep and the Pigeons
The sheep symbolize the blind followers or the yes-men of a Communist dictator, while the pigeons symbolize the secret agents of a Communist dictator who makes use of their services to carry on an insidious propaganda in favour of Communism in other countries.
(B) HUMAN BEINGS
(1) MR. JONES
His Neglect of the Animals
Mr. Jones is the owner of Manor Farm where the entire action of the story takes place. It is against him that Major, the old and wise boar, instigates the animals to revolt. Mr. Jones has in the past been a capable farmer but, when the story opens, he is found to have become quite neglectful. Although he is still an exacting master, he has become indifferent to the welfare of the animals he owns. He has lost money in a lawsuit and has become much disheartened. Having thus fallen on evil days, he has taken to drinking heavily. For several days at a stretch, he sits in his chair in the kitchen, reading newspapers, drinking, and occasionally feeding Moses (the raven) on pieces of bread soaked in beer. As a result of his indifference to the farm, his men have become idle and dishonest so that the animals are now neglected and underfed. Under the circumstances the animals find it easy to drive away Mr. Jones from the farm by using force against him and his men, when one day they find that they have not been fed at all.
(2, 3) MR. PILKINGTON AND MR. FREDERICK
Owners of Two Neighbouring Farms
Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick are the owners of two different farms adjoining Animal Farm. Mr. Pilkington is the owner of Foxwood Farm, while Mr. Frederick owns Pinchfield Farm. Mr. Pilkington is an easy-going gentleman-farmer who spends most of his time in fishing or hunting, according to season. His is a large, neglected, old-fashioned farm, with all its pastures worn out and its hedges in a disgraceful condition. Mr. Frederick is a tough, shrewd man, constantly involved in lawsuits and with a reputation for driving hard bargains.
Their Attitude Towards Animal Farm
Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick are on permanently bad terms. They dislike each other so much that they can never come to any agreement, ever in defence of their own interests. However, when the rebellion on Animal Farm has taken place, they both feel frightened, and become anxious to prevent their own animals from following the example of the animals of Mr. Jones's farm. At first the two men pretend to laugh at the idea of animals managing a farm for themselves. They say that the whole thing would collapse in a fortnight. They circulate a humour that the animals on Mr. Jones's farm are constantly fighting among themselves and would soon starve to death. When some time has passed and the animals on that farm have not starved to death, Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick change their mode of propaganda against that farm. They now begin to talk of the terrible wickedness which, according to them, is flourishing there. They give out that the animals on that farm are practising cannibalism, torturing one another with red-hot implements, and sharing their females. According to these two men, the animals on that farm have gone against the laws of Nature in having driven away their human master, and will inevitably suffer the grievous consequences of the step they had taken.
Forged Currency Notes
At a later stage in the story, Napoleon negotiates with both these men for the sale of some timber which Napoleon wishes to dispose of in order to make some money. After some dilly­dallying, Napoleon decides to sell the timber to Mr. Frederick from whom he thinks he can get more favourable terms. Napoleon is very happy when he is able to sell the timber to Mr. Frederick against hard cash, but soon afterwards Napoleon finds that Mr. Frederick has cheated him by having given him forged currency notes. Subsequently, Mr. Frederick invades Animal Farm with a large number of his men in spite of the fact that he had previously come to some sort of understanding with Napoleon. In the course of this invasion Mr. Frederick's men blow up the windmill on Animal Farm with explosives, thus causing a heavy loss to the animals.
As a Guest at Animal Farm
Towards the end of the story, it is Mr. Pilkington who becomes more friendly with Napoleon and who is invited to Animal Farm as the head of a small delegation of farmers to visit and inspect Animal Farm to satisfy themselves that everything on Animal Farm is going on well. Mr. Pilkington on this occasion delivers a speech in which he expresses his happiness at the fact that a perfect understanding and friendship now exists between Animal Farm and the human beings. "Between pigs and human beings there was not, and there need not be, any clash of interests whatever.” says Mr. Pilkinston. Mr. Pilkington congratulates the pigs on the low rations, the long working hours, and the complete absence of laxity prevailing on Animal Farm. He then proposes a toast to the prosperity of Animal Farm. At the end of the story, we learn that Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon have each played an ace of spaces simultaneously. This mean that each of the two leaders is a cheat, and that there is no difference between the behaviour of human beings and that of the pigs.
The Allegorical Significance of Mr. Pilkington
Mr. Pilkington in the story seens to represent Churchill, who was the Prime Minister of England when this book was written. His farm therefore may be taken to symbolize Britain which became very friendly with Russia after Russia had been invaded by Hitler's armies. As a consequence of the German invasion, Russia had to fight against Hitler's might thus becoming an ally of the western democratics (Britain, U.S.A., and France; which had already beers fighting against Hitler.
The Allegorical Significance of Mr. Frederick
Mr. Frederick symbolizes Hitler, the dictator of Nazi Germany, who plunged the world into war in September, 1939 and who won lightning victories m the beginning. In August, 1939 Hitler had signed a no-war pact with Stalin. (The understanding reached between Napoleon and Mr. Frederick in the story is an obvious reference to this no-war pact). Subsequently, in 1941. Hitler invaded Russia in gross violation of this no-war pact. In the same way, Mr. Frederick invades Animal Farm in spite of the understanding which had been reached between him and Napoleon. The name of Mr. Frederick's farm is significant. "To pinch" means "to steal". "Pinchfieid Farm" therefore signifies a country which aims at stealing or annexing or usurping other countries, it was Hitler's ambition to conquer all the countries of in this way to become the master of the whole world.
(4) MR. WHYMPER
Mr. Whymper is a solicitor who is engaged by Napoleon to look after his trading and commercial interests in his dealings with human beings. Mr. Whymper is required to visit Animal Farm very Monday in order to receive his instructions from Napoleon. Mr. Whymper lives in the nearby town of Willingdon, and has agreed to act as an intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world. Mr. Whymper is a sly-looking little man with side whiskers. Having not much of a professional practice, he promptly agrees to become Napoleon's agent because he is sharp enough to realize that Animal Farm needs a broker and that the commissions would be worth having. The animals on the farm feel quite proud to see that a two-legged creature stands before their leader, the four-legged Napoleon, every week in order to receive orders from Napoleon. It is through Mr. Whymper that Napoleon conducts negotiations with Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick; and it is Mr. Whymper who makes the discovery that the currency notes given by Mr. Frederick to Napoleon are forged and who then brings this shocking fact to the notice of Napoleon.

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