Tuesday, March 22, 2011

English Adjectives

English Adjectives

            An adjective modifies, describes, limits or add to the meaning of a noun or a pronoun, to modify a word, means to make its meaning more definite. Adjectives always modify nouns or noun equivalents.

1.       The old man was sitting in the sun.
2.       The cake tastes delicious.
3.       Hard work is key to success.

KINDS OF ADJECTIVES
(i)     Adjectives of Quality: They describe Nouns. They show the quality, kind  or state of a person or a thing:
A fast friend; a rich man; honest boys; a noble king etc.
Adjectives formed from Proper Nouns are called Proper Adjectives. They are also classed as Adjectives of Quality.
The Indian batsman; The Kenya tea; The French lady etc.
(ii)   Adjective of Quantity: They show the quantity or degree of a thing:
Much money; sufficient labour; some bread; no patience; half holiday etc.
(iii) Adjectives of Number (Numeral Adjectives): They show the number (counting) of persons and things along with their order. They are of the following three kinds:
(a)    Definite Numeral Adjectives show order and definite number:
First, Second, Third etc.
One, two three etc.
Single, double three-fold etc.
(b)    Indefinite Numeral Adjectives do not show a definite number:
Some, many, few all, several certain etc.
(c)    Distributive Numeral Adjectives show each person or thing separately out of their groups:
Each, every either, neither
            Now study the following sentences carefully:


Adjectives of Quality
Adjectives of Number
1.    
Did you eat any ripe mango.
Are there any boys in the playground?
2.    
There is some milk in the jug.
Some girls did not attend the class today.
3.    
She has no sense.
No boy in the class has paid his dues so far.
4.    
He has lost all his wealth.
All the mangoes are sour.
5.    
Your father has enough money.
There are enough seats in the hall.
(iv)  Demonstrative Adjectives: They point to the concerned persons, places or things:
This, that, these, those, such, same etc.
A, an and the are also Demonstrative Adjectives. They are called Articles.
(v)    Interrogative Adjectives are used with Nouns to ask questions.
What time is it now?
Which pen do you like?
Whose house was burgled last night?
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Adjectives have three degrees of comparison:
1.       Positive
2.       Comparative
3.       Superlative
1.       Positive Degree shows simple quality. Comparative Degree shows a higher or lower degree of quality, and Superlative Degree shows the highest or the lowest quality; as
1.       Rahat is a clever boy.                                  (Positive)         
2.       Rahat is cleverer than Shan.                                   (Comparative)
3.       Rahat is the cleverest boy in the class.         (Superlative)

FORMATION OF DEGREES:
            The Comparative and Superlative Degrees are formed:
(i)     By adding ‘r’ and ‘st’ to the Positive when it ends in ‘e’.
       
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Able
Abler
Ablest
Brave
Braver
Bravest
Noble
Nobler
Noblest
Wise
Wiser
Wisest
(ii)   By adding ‘er’ and ‘est’ to the Positive:

Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Bold
Bolder
Boldest
Clever
Cleverer
Cleverest
Great
Greater
Greatest
Sweet
Sweeter
Sweetest
Tall
Taller
Tallest
(iii) If the Positive Degree ends in ‘y’ and there is a consonant before ‘y’, change ‘y’ into ‘i’ and add ‘er’ or ‘est” with it.
     
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Easy
Easier
Easiest
Happy
Happier
Happiest
Heavy
Heavier
Heaviest
Wealthy
Wealthier
Wealthiest
(iv)  If some adjective ends in ‘y; and there is a vowel before ‘y’ add ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added to it.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Gay
Gayer
Gayest
Grey
Greyer
Greyest
(v)    If the Positive Degree ends in a single consonant, and there is some vowel before the consonant, that consonant is doubled and ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added to it.
     
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Big
Bigger
Biggest
Fat
Fatter
Fattest
Hot
Hoter
Hottest
Red
Redder
Reddest
Sad
Sadder
Saddest
Thin
Thinner
Thinnest
(vi)   If some Positive Degree ends in two or more syllables add ‘more’ and ‘most’ or ‘less’ and ‘least’ before it.

Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Beautiful
More/less beautiful
Most/least beautiful
Courageous
More/less Courageous
Most/least Courageous
Intelligent
More/less Intelligent
Most/least Intelligent
(vii)            Irregular Comparisons:

Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Bad, ill, evil
Worse
Worst
Good, well
Better
Best
Little
Less
Least
Much, many
More
Most
Fore
Former
Foremost, first
Hind
Hinder
Hindmost
Late
Later, latter
Latest (time
Last (order)
Near
Nearer
Nearest, next
Old
Older, elder
Oldest, eldest
Note: ‘Older’ is used in respect of ‘age’. ‘Elder’ is used only for members of the same family. Ahmad is my elder borther. Hamid is older than I (me).
(viii)          Certain words are Adverbs in Positive Degree but are Adjectives in Comparative and Superlative Degree:

Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Far
Farther
Farthest (distance)
Far
Further
Furthest (Position)
In
Inner
Inmost, innermost
Out
Outer
Outermost, uttermost
Up
Upper
Up most, uppermost
USES OF DEGREES OF COMPARISON:
1.         Positive Degree is used:
  1. To show simple quality and when there is no comparison:
            You are a clever boy.
  1. To show comparison between two persons or things when they are equal in some quality:
She is as tall as her sister.                                 (Positive)
He is not so wise as his friend.              (Negative)
Comparative Degree is used:
  1. When, two persons or things are compared, ‘than’ is normally put after them.
    Murree is cooler than Rawalpindi.
My picture is more beautiful than yours.
He is less intelligent than his brother.
Neelam is wiser than all the other girls of her class.
  1. In case of making a selection between two persons or things put ‘of’ in place of ‘than’ after the Comparative Degree:
      This book is the better of the two.
  1. In case, two qualities of the same person or thing are compared to each other, the Comparative form (degree) of Adjective is not used:
He is more wise than honest.
(a)                Now study the use of Comparative Degree in the following sentences:
The sooner you come, the better.
The oftener we do a thing, the easier it becomes
The more I advised them, the worse he grew.
(b)                The following Latin Adjectives in Comparative Degree take ‘to’ instead of ‘than’:
He is junior to me in service.
You are senior to me by two years.
This cloth is inferior to that.
The paper of my book is superior to that of yours
Prior to his appointment, he had to work for six months without pay.
Superlative Degree is used when more than two persons or things are compared. It is generally preceded by ‘the’:
      He is the wisest of all the boys in the class
Akbar was one of the greatest Mughal Kings.
You are the least industrious boy in the class.
Uzma is the most intelligent girl that I have ever seen.
Note:    If Possessive Pronoun is followed by superlative degree or in case there is a Noun in Possessive Case, ‘The’ is omitted; as
            You are my best friend.
            This is Shiela’s finest picture.
Some important points to Note:
(a)                Don’t use double Comparative or Superlative. It is incorrect to say:
She is more wiser than her sister.
He is the most tallest boy in the class.
But, we say:
            She is wiser than her sister.
He is the tallest boy in the class.
(b)                Never use the Superlative Degree where the Positive Degree is required.
He is a best player.                                           (Incorrect)
He is a very good player.                                              (Correct)
(c)                Use much, very much, or far before Comparative Adjectives and very and by far before Superlative Adjectives to make the Degree of Comparison intense:
You are much taller than he.
Raja is by far the wisest boy in the class.
(d)               To compare two qualities existing in, the same person or thing, use ‘more’ in place of comparative form (degree) of Adjectives.
Sohail is more brave (not braver) than prudent.
(e)        Some Adjectives like perfect, ideal, unique are not compared.
(f)         Former, latter, elder, hinder, inner, upper, minor, major, outer, utter etc., are not followed by than:
            Raheela and Ammara are two sisters. The former is a painter and the latter, a poetess.
            She is my elder sister.
Note:    We do not use than but use to after ‘elder’.
            Ahmad, my brother, is elder to me.
            The area of the inner circle is smaller than that of the outer one.
            You should try to overcome the major difficulty.
Nouns used as Adjectives:
            There are some Nouns which can be used as Adjectives:
            The well water is good to drink.
            She offered me a gold ring.
            Stone walls do not make a prison.
            He has joined a night school.
Adjectives Used as Nouns:
            Certain adjectives have been given below which can be used as Nouns. The article ‘the’ is placed before them and they are used in the plural, like the Common Nouns:
                        Always help the needy.
                        Do not look down upon the poor.
                        The rich are never contented.
                        Do not laugh at the blind.
                        Respect the old and love the young.
Note:    1.         Every four hours means regularly after an interval of     our hours.
            2.         Every fourth hour means after each interval of three      hours.  
            3.         Every other hour means every second hour.
POSITION OF THE ADJECTIVES:
1.         Attributive Adjective:
            (i)         Before Nouns:







                        I’m reading an interesting        novel.
           


                                      Adjective         Noun               
                        Ali needs          expensive         suits.
            Adjectives which appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they describe are called attributive adjectives.
i.        Good  boys are always polite.
ii.      Ahmad reads an interesting book.
iii.    Each one of us brought used books from the jumbo sale.
2.         Predicative Adjective:
            Certain adjective come after their verbs and said to be used predicatively. These verbs are these: be, become, seem, appear, feel, sound, taste, make, keep, look, get, turn, grow etc.
i.                    I feel good.
ii.                  It sounds great.
iii.                The weather grew cool.
iv.                 He makes me happy.
v.                   It appears nice.
The adjectives which come after the linking verb refer back to noun or pronoun of the subject and are called Predictive Adjectives.
i.                    Ali is intelligent
ii.                  Hassan is always very helpful.
After a direct object as objective complement.
iii.                Marium found the novel boring.
3.         Post Position:
a.         An adjective sometimes can be post position, i.e. they can sometimes follow the item they modify. It is usually regarded as a reduced relative clause.
            The people involved were found.
            Only indefinite pronouns ending in body, one, thing, where can be modified in post position:
            I want to try on something larger (i.e. which is larger)
b.         It also happens in several compounds such as;
            Attorney general: heir apparent; post master general; notary public, etc.
c.          A few adjective also have post position. For example:
            The house ablaze is next door to mine.
d.         Adjective Phrase:
            An idiomatic phrase or prepositional phrase modifying a noun comes after it.
For example:
i.        The king hale and hearty appeared majestically in the court.
ii.      The map, although old and worn, proved to be useful.
iii.    The boys of my class are very naughty.
CORRECT USE OF SOME ADJECTIVES:
(i)         All, Whole
            All denotes both quantity and umber, while whole referes only to quantity:
            All the apples are rotten.                                   (Number)
            She drank all the milk.                                      (Quantity)
            The milkman sold the whole (entire) milk.         (Quantity)
            The lion ate up the whole (entire) goat.             (Quantity)
Note:    ‘The’ is used after ‘all’ but before ‘whole’.
(ii)        Each, Every
            ‘Each’  is used with two or more persons (definite), while ‘Every’ is used with two or more persons (Indefinite):
            The two girls had each a book.
            Each of the girls had a book.
            Everything is ready. He comes to me every day.
Note:    Each and Every take a Singular Verb.
(iii)       Each other, One another
            ‘Each other’ is used for two persons or things while ‘One another’ is used with two or more persons (Indefinite):
            Board and Anders quarreled with each other over a watch.
            All the boys quarreled with one another.

(iv)       Either, Neither, Any, Any other
            Either means one of the two or each of the two.
            Neither is the opposite of either. Any means one or more out of many:
            There are shops on either side of the bazaar.
            I can speak on either side.
            He belongs to neither party.
            You may have any pen you like.
            She is wiser than any other girl in the class.
Note:    In such sentences never omit other because she herself is one of the girls.
(v)        Some, Any
            ‘Some’ is used in Affirmative Sentences; while ‘Any’ is used in Negative Sentences. But both of ‘Some’ and ‘Any’ can be used in Interrogative Sentences:
            I shall buy some books.
            I could not get any tonga there.
            Have you some work to do?
            Have you any money?
(vi)       Older, Oldest, Elder, Eldest
            ‘Older’ and ‘Oldest’ are used for both, living beings and things but ‘elder’ and ‘eldest’ are used for members of own family. ‘Than’ is not used with elder:
            My elder sister is much older than I.
            My eldest brother deals in cotton.
            This is the oldest temple in the city.
Mark the difference between:
            He is my oldest son.
            He is my eldest son.
(vii)      Later, Latest; Latter, Last
            Later and latest refer to time; while latter and last refer to position or order:
            I came later than he.
            What is the latest news?
            Ahmad and Hamid are two brothers. The former is an engineer and the latter is a pilot.
            He came last of all.
Note:    Later is opposed to earlier, while latter is opposed to former.
(viii)     Less, Lesser, Fewer
            Less denotes quantity; while fewer denotes number.
            Lesser is the double comparative of little:
                        This jug contains less milk than that.
                        No fewer than fifteen houses were burnt to ashes.
                        This is the lesser evil of the two.
(ix)       Farther, Further
            Farther means more distant; while further means next, onwards or additional:
            The nearer the Church, the farther from heaven.
            Let us proceed further.

(x)        First, Foremost
            First shows order or position; while foremost means the most important:
            I was the first to solve the question.
            The first chapter of this boo is not difficult.
            Our foremost duty is to obey our parents.
(xi)       Nearest, Next
            Nearest refers to position or order, next shows order in space or time:
            I went to the nearest railway station.
            The next house belongs to Rahat, my brother.
(xii)      Outer, Utter
            Outer shows position and utter refers to degree:
            The outer wall of this house has collapsed.
            In utter disappointment he gave up the attempt.
(xiii)     Many, Many a, Much
            Much denotes quantity while many denotes number.
            Many is followed by Plural Noun; while much by a Singular Noun:
            I have much work to do.
            Many students were absent yesterday.
            A great many men enjoyed the show.
            Many a man has died of cholera.
Note:    Singular Noun and verb are used after many a and not after many alone.

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1 comments:

Anonymous said...

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