Monday, March 21, 2011

English Prepositions

English Prepositions
            A Proposition is a word placed before a Noun or a Pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentences:
                        He works hard in the hope of standing first.
                        The loss of her son kept preying upon her mind.

            The Noun or Pronoun before which a Preposition is placed is its object. It is in the Objec­tive Case and is said to be governed by the Preposition:
                        This pen is for him. (not he)
                        He has no belief in me. (not I)
                        We waited for them. (not they)
Position of a Preposition in regard to ‘who’ or ‘whom”; as
                        Who are you speaking to?
                        To whom are you speaking ?
Both of these sentences are correct.
When the Preposition is used with the Infinitive it is placed at the end of the sentence; as
                        This ball is to play with.
                        Do you have a friend to rely on?
                        I have no money to help you with.
KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS
1.         Simple Prepositions:
                        After, at, by, down, in, of, over, to, up, with, through, for, on, off, till, out etc.
2.         Compound Prepositions:
                        About, across, against, before, beside, into, until, within etc.
3.         Double Prepositions:
                        From among, from beneath, from under, out of, etc.
4.         Participial Prepositions:
                        Considering, accepting, notwithstanding, regarding, etc.
 5.         Phrasal Prepositions:
            Along with                    by way of                      by virtue of                   instead of                     on account of                in the event of,
                                                                                    on behalf of, etc.
Common Use of Some Prepositions:
1.                   At, In:
            (a) ‘At’ is used with the names of small towns and villages ; similarly ‘In’ is used with the names of big cities and countries
            He was born at Wazirabad.
            We settled at Khanpur in Pakistan.

            (b) (i) ‘At’ is used for a point of time
            (ii) ‘In’ is used for a period of time.
                        I shall see you at 6 O’clock in the evening.
                        I shall return in four days.
            We say in the morning (evening or afternoon), at night, at dawn, at day break, at noon etc.
            (c) Both ‘At’ and ‘In’ are used in speaking of things at rest; as
                        I am sitting at my desk.
                        She is sleeping in her room.

2.         After, in:
            When ‘after’ and ‘in’ denote time, the former refers to the past and the latter to the Future;
                        He came back after a year.                                               (Past) I                      shall return your pen in a month.                                     (Future)
            Both ‘After’ and ‘Jra’ refer to the expiry of the time.
3. After, Behind
            After refers to time, order or position, while behind refers to place:
                        You came after 10 A.M. and stood behind the wall.
                        We ran after the thief.
4. Between, Among
            Between is used for two persons or things; among for more than two:
                        The father’s property was divided equally between the two brothers.
                        Distribute these mangoes among all the boys.
5. In, Into
            ‘In’ shows rest within, into shows motion I movement inwards:T
                        There are twenty desks in the room.
                        He jumped into the river.
6. In, Within, Before
            ‘In’ shows the end of a period of time; ‘within’ shows the period before the end of a period of time; ‘before’ refers to the time before a point of time:
                        I shall write to you in a week.
(during the week or immediately at the end of the week)
I shall write to you within a week.                      (before the expiry of a week) 1 shall finish this book before March next.
7. On, Upon
            Virtually speaking, there is no explicit difference between ‘on’ and ‘upon’. However, ‘upon’ is more formal:
                        The books are lying on the table.
                        The king sat upon the throne.
            ‘on’ shows rest; ‘upon’ shows movement:
                        He fell on the floor.               The cat sprang upon the rat.
8. Since, For, From
            ‘Since’ refers to a point of time. ‘For’ refers to a period of time. They are used in some forms of the Perfect Tense only. ‘From’ is used for a point of time in any Tense:
            If ‘Since’ joins two Clauses, we use Present Perfect Tense before it (since) and Simple Past Tense after it (since). However, we must keep in mind that ‘since’ is not a preposition but a conjunction:
                        Mohsin has grown fat since he married.
                        I have been ill since Monday last.
                        It has been raining since morning.
                        I have not heard from you for a long time.
                        He has been working in this office for five years.
                        I shall wait for you from Monday to Friday.
                        He plays from morning till evening.
9. Beside, Besides
Beside means by the side of; besides means in, addition to:
                        He was sitting beside his mother.
                        Besides being punished, he was fined.
10. By, With:
By refers to the doer or the agent; with shows the instrument:
                        He was stabbed by his enemy with a dagger.
                        He beat me with a stick.
Also study the following sentences :
            (a)        She sat by her mother.                          (near)
                        I travelled by myself.                            (alone)
                        What is the time by your watch ?               (according to)
                        I am a Brahman 6y caste,                             (in respect of)
           (b) I rise with the sun.
                       With all your shortcomings, I love you.
11. Till, By

            ‘Till’ means ‘upto’. ‘By’ means ‘not later than’. We also use ‘by’ for the means of convey­ance also:
                        I shall wait for you till 5 P.M.
                        I shall come back by 7 O’clock.
                        I went to Lahore by car.
12. Over, Above, Under, Below:
            ‘Over’ is the opposite of ‘under’. ‘Over’ implies the relation of highest in position or space. ‘Above’ is the opposite of ‘below’ and shows rest in a higher position: 
                        The sky is over our heads.
                        My house is above the road.
                        The bullocks are tethered under a shady tree.
                        He is under the thumb of his wife.
                        His head is above water.
                        He is below me in the class.
Revision of Prepositions in Common Use
A. Prepositions of Time:
            At: At sunset, at noon, at dawn, at 10 O’clock, at Holi, at Dussehra.
            On: On Friday, on 25th April, on Sunday morning.      
            In: In an hour, in March, in the morning, in the evening.
            During: During holidays, during the war.
            By: By 7 O’clock, by Monday.
            For: For ten days, for two hours.          
            Since: Since morning, since 1995, since 8 O’clock.
B. Prepositions of Travel and Movement:
            By: By bus, by train, by aeroplane.
            On: On foot, on bike, on horse back.
            From: From home to school.
C. Preposition of Place:
            At: At a small village, at a certain point, at home.
            In: In a city, in a country, in an inclosed space.

COMMON ERRORS IN THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS

Make a careful note of the following wrong use of prepositions:
A. Where a preposition should not have been used:


Incorrect
Correct
1.      
I have ordered for dinner.
I have ordered dinner.
2.      
The   younger   brother resembles to the elder.
The   younger   brother resembles the elder.
3.      
I want the police to investigate into the case.
I want the police to investigate the case.
4.      
He deeply loved with me.
He deeply loved me.
5.      
I reached at Lahore only this morning.
I reached Lahore only this Morning.
6.      
The teacher has not yet entered into the classroom.
The teacher has not yet entered the classroom.
7.      
Why have you picked up a quarrel with him?
Why have you picked a quarrel with him?
8.      
He asked from me if I was interested in a job.
He asked me if I was interested in a job.
9.      
He thought if he could cram a few important questions, he could pass in
The examination.
He thought if he could cram a few important questions, he could pass the examination.
10.   
Your   name   precedes before mine and succeeds after Rehman’s.
Your name precedes mine and succeeds Rehman’s.
11.   
You will come to grief if you do not obey to my orders.
You will come to grief if you do not obey my orders.
12.   
He   should  not  have violated against the rules.
He should not have violated the rules.
13.   
Let us discuss about the problem.
Let us discuss the problem.
14.   
May I accompany with you to the railway station?
May I accompany you to the railway station?
15.   
As he approached to his office, he was attacked by a stranger.
As he approached his office, he was attacked by a stranger.
16.   
The teacher promised to the boys a holiday.
The teacher promised the boys a holiday.
17.   
The Principal requested to the President to distribute the prizes.
The Principal requested the President to distribute the prizes.
18.   
He married with a rich widow.
He married a rich widow.
19.   
He prevailed upon me to resign from my job.
He prevailed upon me to resign my job.
20.   
Sign on this paper.
Sign this paper.
21.   
Fear from God.
Fear God.
22.   
Do you have enough of money?
Do you have enough money?
23.   
A sense of gloominess pervades whole novel.
A sense of gloominess pervades through the whole novel.
24.   
Please recommend for me to the officer.
Please recommend me to the officer.
25.   
Your advice will benefit to me much.
Your advice will benefit me much.

B.         Where a preposition should not have been omitted

Incorrect
Correct
1.      
He will not listen what you say.
He will not listen to what you say.
2.      
Have you disposed the old furniture you wanted to?
Have you disposed of the old furniture you wanted to?
3.      
Your fault does not admit any    excuse.
Your fault does not admit of any excuse.
4.      
Could you lend me your pen to write a letter?
Could you lend me your pen to write a letter with?
5.      
He searched the book everywhere.
He searched for the book everywhere.
6.      
I asked a ticket.
I asked for a ticket.
7.      
We spent the whole day playing cards.
We spent the whole day in playing cards.
8.      
I prevailed him to attend the meeting.
I prevailed upon him to attend the meeting.
9.      
This scholarship has to be
Competed
This scholarship has to be
competed for.
10.   
You are welcome to partake this light refreshment
You are welcome to partake of this light refreshment.

C.         Where a wrong preposition has been used:


Incorrect
Correct
1.      
I could not understand why he was angry upon me.
I could not understand why he was angry with me.
2.      
Our examination begins from 1st  May.
Our examination begins on 1st May.
3.      
You are required to sign with ink.
You are required to sign in ink.
4.      
I equipped from him where he lived.
I equipped of him where he lived.
5.      
Why are you afraid from Me?
Why are you afraid of me?
6.      
Have you come in train or by foot?
Have you come by train or on foot?
7.      
He was appointed on the post.
He was appointed to the post.
8.      
Those who are jealous from others never get peace in life.
Those who are jealous of others never get peace in life.
9.      
I met him in the way.
I met him on the way.
10.   
I am prepared to say it at his face.
I am prepared to say it to his face.
11.   
Send this letter on my address.
Send this letter to my address.
12.   
Open your books on page 20.
Open your books at page 20.
13.   
It is a quarter to seven in my watch.
It is a quarter to seven by my watch.
14.   
This book is different than that.
This book is different from that.
15.   
The students are sitting on their desks.
The students are sitting at their desks.
16.   
Let us sit down under the shade of a tree.
Let us sit down in the shade of a tree.
17.   
You should return home before two hours.
You should return home within two hours.
18.   
She was married with a businessman.
She was married to a businessman.
19.   
Sri Lanka is in the South of Pakistan.
Sri Lanka is to the South of Pakistan.
20.   
Copy this letter word by word.
Copy this letter word for word.

D.         Make a careful study of the following sentences in which the use of the infinitive is erroneous and should be replaced by a preposition followed by a gerund or a noun:

Incorrect
Correct
1.      
He   insisted   to   leave immediately.
He insisted on leaving immediately.
2.      
You should refrain to tell lies.
You should refrain from telling lies.

3.      
The policeman prevented him to park his car there.
The policeman prevented him from parking his car there.
4.      
The invigilator prohibited the student to copy.
The invigilator prohibited the   student from copying.
5.      
I am confident to succeed.

I am confident of success.
6.      
He assisted me to check the accounts.
He assisted me in checking the accounts.
7.      
I have great pleasure to certify it.
I have great pleasure in certifying it.
8.      
She has a passion to read novels.
She has a passion for reading novels.
9.      
You are quite justified to hold that opinion.
You are quite justified in holding that opinion.
10.   
He is desirous to go abroad.
He is desirous of going abroad.
11.   
He succeeded to win the election.
He succeeded in winning the election.
12.   
You are fortunate to have an intelligent and obedient son.
You are fortunate in having an intelligent and obedient son.
13.   
I dissuaded him to try for the job.
I dissuaded him from trying for the job.
14.   
1 take pride to serve my country.
I take pride in serving my country.
15.   
There is no harm to try.
There is no harm in trying.
16.   
I am keen to go there.
I am keen on going there.
17.   
I take this opportunity to thank you.
I take this opportunity of thanking you.
18.   
I find no chance to make a profit in this business.
I find no chance of making a profit in this business.
19.   
He is bent to harm me.
He is bent on harming me.
20.   
He is addicted to smoking.
He is addicted to smoke.

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2 comments:

Anonymous said...

just wonderful

Anonymous said...

Importance of English can not be denied in Pakistan as well as in any other country of the world. I heartfully thank Sir Naeem who launched this system to help millions of student in Pakistan who have got plenty of brains but unfortunately not proper sources to learn English. I simply salute you Sir Naeem. Ramzan hassan.

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