Tuesday, March 22, 2011

English Spelling System

English Spelling System
            Knowledge of correct spelling is essential for writing correct words. Sometimes we know words but cannot use them as we are not sure about how they are spelt. But if we follow the simple rules, we will be able to rectify our weakness and enhance word power.

            Certain words are formed by an addition to the beginning or the end of a word, e.g.,
            Beside, forgive, foretell, gainsay, income, unkind etc.
            Freedom, friendship, darkness, hopeful, weaken, boldly, sleeping.
            Words mentioned in example 1 show the use of prefix (in the beginning of) and that of example 2 show the use of suffix (in the end).
            Now see the following rules carefully:
            Final ‘e’ is dropped before a suffix beginning with a vowel sound.
Come   —
Coming
Prone           —
Proning
Shine   —
Shining
Shave           —
Shaving
Take     —
Taking

Approve                   —

Approval
Fertile —

Fertility

Pure             —

Purity

Severe —

Severity

Supreme                   —

Supremacy

Vice     —

Vicious

Waste           —

Wastage

Luster   —

Lustrous

Nerve           —

Nervous

Space   —

Spacious

Ease             —

Easy

Ice        —

Icy

Cure             —

Curable

Note: There are few exceptions. Final e is retained in the following conditions:
            (a) In all words ending in -ce, -ge before suffixes beginning with a, i, o, u, provided the soft sound of e or g is retained. e,g.

Notice        —

Noticeable

peace           —

peaceable

trace           —

Traceable

Service         —

serviceable

advantage    —

Advantageous

Courage                   —

courageous

       (b) In all words ending in –ee, -ye, e.g.
dye       —         dyeing              eye       —         eyeing
            But monosyllabic words ending in –ie change ie into y before ing,         e.g.
            die       —         dying               tie        —         tying
            lie        —         lying
2.         Final e is retained before suffixes in the following words:
            amuse  —         amusement       move    —         movement
            manage            —         management     base     —         baseness
            free      —         freedom            brave    —         bravery
            knave   —         knavery                        home    —         homely
            hope     —         hopeful             use       —         useful
            care      —         careless                        life       —         lifeless
            (a) But words ending in -dge, -le drop the final e, e.g.
            Judge               — judgment (in American language)
                                    — judgement (e retained in British English)
            Acknowledge    — acknowledgment (American)
                                    — acknowledgement (British)
            Whole               — wholly
            (b) Also,
                        true                  —         truth
                        wise                 —         wisdom
3.         Monosyllabic words ending in –ll- drop the final / before suffixes beginning with a consonant, e.g.
                        well                              —         welcome,
                        welfare all                    —         altogether,
                        already full                   —         fulfill
Note:    Final / is not dropped before the suffix –ness, e.g.
                        ill                    —         illness
                        dull                              —         dullness
                        still                               —         stillness
4.         Monosyllabic words ending in -ll — drop the final/when preceded by a prefix,
                        roll                   —         enrol
                        fill       —         fulfil
5.         Monosyllabic words ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
            bid                   —      bidding                           get                   —         getting
         dig                   —      digging                           sit        —         sitting
         run       —      running, runner  swim                —         swimming, swimmer
         spin                  —      spinning                         cut       —         cutting, cutter
            win      —     winning                           put      —         putting
            hit        —      hitting                             split        —     splitting
            shut                  —     shutting                           god                  —         goddess
            spit                   —      spitting                           quit                  —         quitting
         wed     —     wedding
6.         Polysyllabic words accented on the last syllable and ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel—double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
            compel             —         compelled, compelling
       control              —         controlled, controlling, controller
       omit                              —         omitting, omitted
       rebel                             —         rebelled, rebelling, rebellious
       refer                 —         referred, referring
       begin                —         beginning
Note:    Many words ending in –l though not accented on the last syllable, double the final l e.g.
            Travel    —     Traveller               Jewel    —    Jeweller
7.         Words ending in -y preceded by a consonant—change the v into / before all suffixes except – ous and ing.
                   baby                 —         babies
                   beauty    —       beautify, beautiful but beauteous
                   bury                 —         burial, buried but burying
                   deny                 —         denial, denied but denying
                   dry                   —         dried hut drying
                   marry     —       marriage, married but marrying
                   merry     —       merrier, merrily, merriment
Note:  (a) But y preceded by a vowel remains unchanged. e.g.
                   toy       —     toys          key                   —      keys
                   volley    —     volleys    prey                 —      preys
                   play                  —     plays
(b) Some words ending in -y preceded by a vowel change the y into I before a suffix beginning with a vowel. e.g.
gay       —         gaiety               pay       —         paid but paying
say       —         said but saying
8.         When e and I combine, sound as eeI precedes e except after e.
(a)        Achieve, brief, believe, chief, field, fierce, grief, niece, relieve, siege, sieve, wield, yield.
(b)        ceiling, conceit, deceive, perceive, receive, receipt
Note:    seize, counterfeit, weird, either, plebeian, vicereine, neither, protein, deity. deify, heifer, heinous.
9.         Mark the change from c to v, as the word changes from noun to verb in the following words:
Noun               Verb                             Noun               Verb
Advice              advise                          device              devise
Licence             license                          practice                        practice
List of words usually misspelt
1.         Words ending in -ar
beggar, calendar, grammar, war, lunar, scholar, solar, sugar
2.         Words ending in -er
                        adviser, carpenter, character, commissioner, employer, hunger, juggler, lawyer, mariner, signatter, teacher, weaver
3.         Words ending in -or
                        author, bachelor, creditor, debtor, doctor, horror, inspector, instructor, jailor, mirror. monitor, professor, spectator, tutor
4.         Words ending in -ary,
                        boundary, customary, dictionary, exemplary, honorary, library, military, necessary, salary, secretary, solitary, stationary, summary, temporary
5.         Words ending in -ery
                    battery, bravery, fiery, gallery, lottery, machinery, mystery, recovery, scenery, silvery, stationery
6.         Words ending in -ory
                        advisory, compulsory, exclamatory, factory, history, memory, preparatory, satisfactory, victory.
7.         Words ending in -ent
                        absent, ascent, accident, amusement, content, continent, Convenient, evident, impertinent, impotent, impudent, obedient, opponent, permanent, president, efficient. superintendent, violent, ancient, sufficient, beneficent, magnificent, patient
8.         Words ending in -ant
                        attendant, brilliant, distant, elegant, extravagant, fragrant, giant, gallant, inhabitant ignorant, lieutenant, merchant, peasant, pheasant, pleasant, pregnant, sergeant, tenant.
9.         Words ending in -ence
                        absence, audience, commence, confidence, defence, difference, evidence, offence. presence, science
10.        Words ending in -ense
                        condense, expense, immense, intense, nonsense, suspense
11.        Words ending in -ance
                        admittance, acquaintance, appearance, assistance, attendance, balance, distance, entrance, guidance, maintenance, repentance, substance
12.        Words ending in -tion
                        ambition, definition, destination, function, intention, mention, operation, reception, station
13.        Words ending in -sion
                  collision, compulsion, confusion, expulsion, excursion, mension, occasion, provision. Persuasion
14.        Words ending in -ssion
                        admission, discussion, omission, permission, possession, procession, succession
Note: Now read these words:
(i)         Ocean, magician, suspicion
(ii)        Anywhere, anyone, anything, something, someone, somebody, cannot, into. nobody, nothing, everybody, already
            But — every one, all right.
(iii)       These words fall under none of the rules mentioned above:
            Almighty, accommodate, amateur, auspices, annual, aeroplane, altogether, apology, autumn, awe. bazaar, balloon, benefited, brethren, betel, conscience. cushion, coolie, colonel, colleague, develop, decent, diarrhea, dysentery, eclipse. etiquette, furniture, guarantee, heroine, inflammation, island, jaundice, luster, lorry, measles, metallic, museum, nineteen, ninth, nuisance, opaque, opportunity. partridge, perilous, persuade, picturesque, privilege, quarrelled, scythe, scissors, sovereign, surgeon, tobacco, tuberculosis, turmeric, truly, tuition, tyranny, umpire. valley, volunteer, vulture, welcome, woolen, wrist, zero.

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1 comments:

Anonymous said...

You left out "words ending in -cian". RAMZAN HASSAN

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