Tuesday, March 22, 2011

English Verb: Gerund - The Ing-Form

English Verb: Gerund - The Ing-Form
            A Gerund acts partly as a verb and partly as a Noun. It is formed by adding ‘ing’ to the first form of the verb. It is also called a Verbal Noun. In form it is similar to the form of Present Participle e.g. V1 + ing (eating, buying, cooking, dancing, walking, running etc.)
            Drinking is bad for health.
            Painting is really an art.
            A Present Participle also ending in ‘___ing’, expresses an unfinished action:

            I found her weeping.
            Seeing him alone, she went there.
            The only difference between a Gerund and a Present Participle is that a Gerund is used in the form of a Noun but the Present Participle is used as an Adjective.

Present Participle
The driving truck crushed the cyclist.
Driving needs concentration.
They saw Mohsin drinking.
Drinking is injurious to health.

            A Present Participle is that form of the verb which ends in ‘ing’ but has the force of both a verb and an adjective.

            A Gerund is that form of the verb which ends in ‘ing’ but has the force of both a Verb and a Noun.

Like a Noun, the Gerund can be used:
(a)    As a Subject to the Verb:
                  Riding is an exercise.
                  Gambling has ruined many.
                  Walking in the sun is harmful to eyes.
                  Stealing is a crime.
(b)    As an Object of the Verb:
                  Let us enjoy boating.
                  Stop playing.
                  I hate stealing.
                  She could not help laughing.
(c)    As the Object of a Preposition:
             was fined for coming late.
            he is fond of skating.
             am thinking of going abroad.
            he is very good at dancing.
            Note: When a verb comes immediately after the preposition, the gerund form must be use, e.g.,
                        He insisted on seeing her.
                        He is thinking of settling in Lahore.
(d)   As a Subject Complement:
            Seeing is believing.
            Sitting here is wasting (of) time.
            What I hate most is lying.
            The Verbal Nouns completely shed their Verbal force:
                        The reading of novels is my favourite pastime.
            A Verbal Noun is preceded by ‘the’ and followed by ‘of’. It is qualified by an Adjective:
            The cruel (Adjective) pricking (verbal Noun) of conscience filled him with sorrow.
Verbs, followed by Gerunds:
            The following verbs get the gerunds after them:
            enjoy, stop, finish, dread, detest, dislike, prevent, avoid, risk, admit, acknowledge, deny, recollect, resent, excuse, delay, imagine, fancy, forgive, pardon, postpone, keep, (continue), understand, consider, miss, save, resist, anticipate, involve, it is no use, suggest, can’t stand (endure), it is no good, can’t help (prevent/avoid), favour, practiced etc.

Stop wasting money on cheap books.

Forgive my interrupting you.
I don’t risk getting sick.

I anticipate meeting her soon.
She enjoys shopping.

He delays going to Karchi.
He postponed appearing in the Examination.

I fancy looking great.
She dreads getting old.

I resent being punished.
The team finished counting the votes

She detests meeting strangers.
Nobody could prevent her getting married.

She avoids mixing with flirts.
He admitted committing a theft.

She denied using foul means.
She recollected meeting the minister.

I can’t imagine living anywhere else.
She keeps dozing everytime.

The boss acknowledged making a mistake.
I considered approaching the principal.

She dislikes backbiting others.
She favoured traveling with me.

She couldn’t help laughing.
I missed seeing her.

She practiced dancing every day.
I suggest going for a picnic.

It is no use wasting your time.
Either Gerund or Infinitive can be used after these verbs:
            permit, remember, regret, forget, allow, recommend, advise, love, prefer, hate, like, attempt, can’t bear, intend, begin, continue, start, it needs/requires/wants, mean, go on be afraid (of), try, propose, used to.
            Note: When some of the verbs shown above are used as a Gerund or Infinitive, their meanings are changed.:
                        I remember meeting her last year.
            (‘I remember that I met her last year’ – the action of meeting has already occurred. But in ‘I will remember to see him’, the action of seeing is not yet over – it is yet to be completed.)

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