Monday, April 25, 2011

IELTS English Vocabulary - C

C
CAPABLE:
(adjective) Able, confident, skilled. For example: 'I sometimes feel I am not capable of writing my university essays in English, it is quite difficult for me.'
CAPACITY:
(noun) Size, volume. For example: 'The class is full to capacity so I will have to wait and enroll in a new class next month.'

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT:
(noun) The penalty of death for a crime
CATEGORY:
A division or class of something. For example: There are several categories of cars - family cars, sports cars, 4 wheel drives...
CAUSE:
(noun) The reason something happens. Example: 'The cause of rising sea levels is the melting of polar ice'.
CEASE:
(verb) Stop, end, finish. For example: 'He has been made redundant and his employment contract will officially cease on July 21st.'
CELEBRITY:
(noun) Someone very well known; a public figure. 'Many celebrities, such as Tom Cruise, are photographed wherever they go.'
CENTRALLY CONTROLLED:
(adjective) Controlled by a country's government, not by local governments.
CERTAINTY:
(noun) No doubt; sure. Example: 'It is a certainty that the world's population will increase.'
CHALLENGE:
(verb) To argue against an opinion. Example: 'In IELTS writing, you may need to challenge an opinion by giving a different point of view'.
(noun) A difficult situation. Example: 'Studying in a second language can be a challenge for many students'.
CHALLENGING:
(adjective) Difficult, not easy. Example: 'It can be challenging for international students to study at university in a second language'.
CHANNEL:
(verb) Direct, guide, feed. For example: 'The Government promises to channel more funds into fighting crime if they win the next election.'
CHAPTER:
(noun) Section, part of a book. For example: 'The information we learned today in the lecture is found in more detail in chapter 10 of the textbook.'
CHARACTER:
(noun) How someone behaves / thinks / acts. Example: 'He has a very friendly, approachable character.'
CHART:
(noun) graph, table, diagram. For example: 'It was clear from the bar chart that sales had risen in the period January-April.'
CHEMICAL:
(noun) Substance, element, compound. For example: 'There are many harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke.'
CIRCUMSTANCE:
(noun) Situation, event. For example: 'It should depend on the individual circumstances of the crime, as to whether the death penalty is implemented.'
CITE:
(verb) Situation, event. For example: 'It is important to cite the name of the author you have used information from in academic writing for university.'
CIVIL:
(adjective) Related to individuals and the general public. For example: 'Civil rights allow the right to privacy in most countries.'
CIVILISED:
(adjective) Having a high state of culture, technology or society. Example: 'Many ancient cultures, such as the Egyptians and the Aztecs, were highly civilised.'
CLAIM:
(noun) Something stated as fact, though not necessarily proven. Example: 'His claims have been ignored by the government'.
CLARIFY:
(verb) Explain, make clear. For example: 'The instructions given on the examination paper were not clear so we asked the invigilator to clarify what we had to do.'
CLASSIC:
(adjective) Typical. For example: 'A classic example of discrimination is lower pay for women.'
CLASSIFY:
(verb) To put into a group or category. Example: 'Humans are classified as mammals. Sharks are classified as fish'.
CODE:
(noun) Rule, regulation. For example: 'Knowledge of the highway code is tested in the driving test in a theory exam.'
COHERENCE:
 (noun) Able to be understood. Example: 'An essay needs to show coherence; that is, a logical flow of ideas'.  See also COHERENT
COHERENT:
(adjective) Logical, reasoned. For example: 'In order to gain good marks it is important to write an essay which has good ideas and is coherent.'
COHESION:
 (noun) Joining ideas together. Example: 'A good essay will be easy to understand because of its cohesion'
COINCIDE:
(verb) Happen togther, match, overlap. For example: 'The date for my IELTS exam coincided with my college exams so I did not have enough time to study properly as I had too much to do.'
COLLAPSE:
(verb) Give way, fail, come to nothing. For example: 'The ideas and proposal for the new business development collapsed when it became clear that necessary funding was not available.'
COLLEAGUE:
(noun) Co-worker. For example: 'Having supportive colleagues in the workplace is very important'
COLLOQUIAL:
(adjective) Local and informal language. Example: 'Mate' means 'friend in many English speaking countries'.
SLANG (noun) Words used informally, often by particular groups.
COMBINATION:
(noun) When two or more things are put together. Example: 'Some IELTS questions will require you to use a combination of skills and abilities'.
COMFORTABLE:
(adjective) Calm, relaxed, at ease. Example: 'It is important to show the examiner that you are comfortable speaking English during your IELTS test'.
COMMENCE:
(verb) Start, begin. For example: 'The new university semester commences on February 25th and all new students need to enroll the week before.'
COMMENT:
(verb) Say in passing, mention, point out. For example: 'My teacher commented that my English has improved a lot in the last two months when I spoke with her the other day. '
COMMISSION:
(verb) Appoint, authorise. For example: ' In many people’s opinion artworks commissioned by the Council, are an example of money badly spent as there are more important projects to spend money on.'
COMMIT TO:
(verb) Pledge. For example: 'Although the Government said, during the last election that it was committed to reducing crime rates there has been an increase in violent crime in the last three years.'
COMMODITY:
(noun) Product, good or service. For example: 'Electronic commodities such as computers and equipment have fallen dramatically in price since their introduction to the market.'
COMMON:
(adjective)
#1 - Similar, shared. Example: 'It is beneficial if husbands and wives have common interests'.
#2 - Usual, regularly occuring. Example: 'It is common for language learners to make grammar mistakes'.
COMMUNICATE:
To give or exchange thoughts, ideas or opinions.
COMMUNITY:
(noun) A group of people in society. For example: 'Over recent years local communities have become more concerned about increase in crime in their areas.'
COMPARATIVE:
(grammar term) The form of an adjective used for comparing. Example: tall > taller
COMPARISON:
(noun) When something is compared to something else. Example: 'There have been comparisons made between the landscape of New Zealand and Norway'.
COMPATIBLE:
(adjective) Well-matched, like-minded. For example: 'It is important for employers to employ the most suitable person for a job and that the employee’s personality is compatible with the position being offered.'
COMPENSATE:
(verb) Balance, make up for. For example: 'Nowadays some parents try to compensate for having little time to spend with their children by giving them too many material things such as toys and games.'
COMPILE:
(verb) List, compose, record. For example: 'Before I go to the library I need to compile a list of information I need to look for while I am there.'
COMPLAIN:
(verb) To say that you are not satisfied or happy with something or someone. Example: 'The customer complained about the poor service'.
(noun) = Complaint
COMPLEMENT:
(verb) Add to, accompany. For example: 'Following a healthy diet and taking regular exercise complement each other well to create a healthy lifestyle..'
COMPLEX:
(adjective) Not simple, involved, difficult. For example: 'Arguments in support of, and against the death penalty need to be considered carefully, as the subject is extremely complex.'
COMPLICATED:
(adjective) Difficult, intricate. Example: 'Mathematics studied at university level is complicated'.
COMPONENT:
(noun) Part, piece. For example: 'Tom has the ability to fix my computer but is unsure if he can find the correct components he needs to sort out the problem.'
COMPOUND:
(verb) Add to, increase (a negative situation). For example: 'Governments should invest more money into public health care as lack of funds only compound the problem hospitals are facing.'
COMPREHENSIVE:
(adjective) Wide-ranging, thorough. For example: 'Hospitals should provide comprehensive information booklets so that patients will know what to expect when they have an operation.'
COMPRISE:
(verb) Include, contain, thorough. For example: 'Australia comprises several states including the A.C.T. which contains Canberra.'
COMPULSORY:
(adjective). Essential, must be done, no choice. Example: 'It is compulsory to have a passport when travelling overseas'.
CONCEIVE:
(verb) Visualise, imagine, think of. For example: 'It is difficult for us to conceive the long term environmental impact of our actions now. '
CONCENTRATE:
(verb) Focus, think. For example: 'It is important to concentrate when revising for exams, study some where quietly and switch of all distractions including radios and TV.'
CONCEPT:
(noun) Idea, theory. For example: 'I am learning about Marketing concepts in my class this week, it is interesting to find out about so many different theories.'
CONCESSION:
(noun) An acknowledgment or admission that there are opinions different to your own. Example: 'It is important to add a concession to your Task II essay to show that you can consider other opinions'.
CONCLUDE:
(verb) End, finish, bring to a close. For example: 'Before concluding the meeting the CEO thanked us for attending and for our input.'
CONCRETE:
(adjective). Real, not theoretical or abstract. Example: 'A concrete example'
(noun) A substance that is mixed with sand and water to create a solid material used in building.
CONCURRENT:
(adjective) Same time, simultaneous. For example: 'The country’s army had no time to respond due to the concurrent attacks by sea, land and air.'
CONDITIONAL CLAUSE:
(grammar term) A sentence that has an 'if' statement - can be zero, 1st, 2nd, 3rd or mixed). Example: 'If students study hard, they have a better chance of success'. (This is a zero conditional clause)
CONDUCT:
(noun) Behaviour, ways, manner. For example: 'The high standard of conduct expected of children at the school is important in helping them learn lessons for later in life.'
CONFER:
(verb) Consult, discuss. For example: 'Education institutions should confer more with parents to discuss solutions to the growing problem of children missing school.'
CONFIDENT:
(adjective) Having no doubts; to be sure; being self-assured. Example: 'It is important to appear confident in an interview situation'.
CONFINE:
(verb) Constrict, limit. For example: 'A number of countries are now confining cigarette smoking to outside areas only in public places.'
CONFIRM:
(verb) Check, verify. For example: 'It is shop owners' responsibility to confirm their customers are old enough to buy cigarettes by asking them to provide identification.'
(noun) CONFIRMATION Example: 'A confirmation has been made for the booking next month'.
CONFLICTING:
(adjective) Differing, opposite. For example: 'There are a number of conflicting opinions on whether technology has improved or reduced quality of life.'
CONFORM:
(verb) Fit in with, follow rules of conduct, match. For example: 'Younger people nowadays find it difficult to conform to the rules of society.'
CONFRONTATIONAL:
(adjective) The state of being argumentative or in opposition. Example: 'Some teenagers can become confrontational when talking to their parents'.
CONFUSE:
(verb) To mix up, to not understand correctly. Example: "It can be easy to confuse tenses in English grammar'.
CONNECT:
(verb) To link, to join. Example: 'In English, you can connect ideas with linking words'.
CONSCRIPTION:
(noun) Compulsory recruitment into the military. Example: 'Many countries still have conscription'.
CONSENT:
To AGREE
CONSEQUENT:
(adjective) Resulting, following. For example: 'A number of people were concerned about the change in government policy and the consequent protests were no surprise.'
CONSIDER:
(verb) Think carefully about. Example: 'You need to consider possible synonyms for keywords before scanning the reading passage for the answer'.
CONSIDERABLE:
(adjective) Large, sizeable, substantial. For example: 'A recent survey showed that a considerable number of parents have little knowledge regarding the signs of drug use.'
CONSIST:
(verb) Be made up of. For example: 'The main basis of his argument consisted of the facts and figures he had direct from the survey.'
CONSONANT:
(noun). Letters in the alphabet that are not a,e,i,o or u.
Some words can begin with a vowel but have a consonant sound. Example: university (yoo-ni-ver-si-ty), uniform (yoo-ni-form).
CONSTANT:
(adjective) Continual, endless. For example: 'There have been constant problems since the new policy has been introduced.'
CONSTITUENT PARTS:
(noun phrase) Parts or ingredients that together make a whole. Example: 'There are many constituent parts to a car engine'.
CONSTITUTE:
(verb) Comprise, make up, form. For example: 'The research I have collected constitutes a very good basis for my assignment.'
CONSTRAIN:
(verb) Limit, restrict, hinder. For example: 'In order to constrain the increasing use of illegal drugs, stricter penalties should be introduced.'
CONSTRUCT:
(verb) Build, put together, make. For example: 'It is important to construct a solid argument for your essay and making notes beforehand helps enormously.'
CONSULT:
(verb) Ask, check with. For example: 'It is important for patients to consult their doctor before taking any additional medication.'
CONSUME:
(verb)
1. to expend by use; use up. 'Cities consume a high percentage of a country's energy, due to the high populations living there.'
2. to eat or drink up; devour. 'Many people consume a great deal of junk food ona  regular basis.'
3. to destroy, as by decomposition or burning: Fire consumed the forest.
4. to spend (money, time, etc.) wastefully.
5. to absorb; engross: consumed with curiosity.

CONTACT:
(verb). Write to/speak to, get in touch with. Example: 'It is the school’s responsibility to contact parents of children they suspect are taking drugs.'
CONTAIN:
(verb) To include, to hold within. Example: 'The IELTS reading and listening tests both contain 40 questions.'
CONTEMPORARY:
(adjective). Modern. Example: 'In my opinion contemporary novels are more interesting and true to life than classic literature.'
CONTEXT:
(noun). Perspective, background. Example: 'A good essay will put all ideas and arguments into a clear context.'
CONTINENTS:
Groups of countries; large masses of land. For example: Europe, Asia
CONTRACT:
(noun). Written and signed agreement, legally binding document. Example: 'An employment contract protects the rights of both employer and employee.'
CONTRADICT:
(verb). Disagree with, challenge the view of, oppose. Example: 'The findings in the new research project contradict those from the earlier survey.'
CONTRARY:
(adjective). Opposite. Example: 'There are many contrary opinions to this view.'
CONTRARY (On the contrary):
(noun). Opposite. Example: 'Sensible exercise has no ill effects on the body; on the contrary it brings enormous benefits.'
CONTRAST:
(noun). Difference, strong dissimilarity. Example: 'There is enormous contrast between the landscapes of the two countries.'
CONTRIBUTE:
(verb). Add, give. Example: 'Older workers in the work force are important as they contribute their experience, wisdom and patience.'
CONTROVERSIAL:
(adjective) Arguable, disputable, likely to cause disagreement. Example: 'The government's decision to reduce funding of public healthcare was controversial.'
CONTROVERSY:
(noun). Arguement, disagreement. Example: 'A decision to fine parents of children who are not attending school would cause a huge amount of controversy.'
CONVENE:
(verb). Come together, assemble. Example: 'United Nations representatives will convene in Europe next month.'
CONVENTIONAL:
(adjective) Following accepted customs and traditions. Example: 'In western countries, it is conventional for the bride to wear a white dress on her wedding day.'
CONVERT:
(verb). Change, alter from one use or purpose to another. Example: 'In many parts of the world forest land has been converted to agricultural land and this has impacted on the environment.'
CONVINCE:
(verb). Persuade, encourage another to believe a point of view. Example: 'It has been difficult to convince the general public of the dangers related to this.'
COOPERATE:
(verb) Work together. For example: 'It is important for Governments of different countries to cooperate together to find a solution to global warming.'
COORDINATE:
(verb) Organise, bring together. For example: 'The conference will require a huge amount of organisation so the company has appointed an Events Manager to coordinate the project.'
CORE:
(adjective) Central, main. For example: 'The company is involved in many different areas of business but its core business is computer software.'
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT:
(noun phrase) Physical punishment. Example: 'Corporal punishment, such as caning, is now banned in many schools.'
CORPORATE:
(adjective) Business or company related, commercial. For example: 'It is relatively easy to find out information at companies these days as on the web there are numerous sites holding corporate information.'
CORRELATION:
(noun) A connection or link between things. Example: 'There is a correlation between healthy living and lifespan'.
CORRESPOND:
(verb) Match, match up to, relate to. For example: 'The findings from this research project correspond with those from earlier studies.'
COUNTERPART:
(noun) Equal, equivalent. Example: 'A prime minister is the counterpart of a president'.
COUPLE WITH:
(verb) Combine, link, join. For example: 'Rising unemployment amongst graduates coupled with increasing costs to study at university have resulted in the decreasing enrolments into university programmes.'
CREATE:
(verb) Make, invent, produce, generate. For example: 'The arrival of the new factory has created a number of job opportunities for local people.'
CREDIT:
(noun) Praise, recognition, acclaim. For example: 'Nursing staff are often not given enough credit for the difficult job they perform.'
CRITERIA:
(noun) Condition related to a situation. For example: 'The successful candidate for the job must meet all the criteria laid down in the job description.'
CRUCIAL:
(adjective) essential, necessary, vital. For example: 'It is crucial that governments provide good education opportunities for teenagers to ensure a successful future for the country.'
CULPABLE:
(noun) The state of being guilty of doing something. 'He is culpable for the damage his children caused.'
CULTURE:
(noun) Society, traditon, customs, way of life. For example: 'It is an important education for people to experience different cultures as it allows them the opportunity to better understand people from countries different to their own.'
CURE:
(noun) Treatment, solution. Example: 'Many people are searching for a cure for the common cold'.
CURRENCY:
(noun) Money, exchange. For example: 'Currency exchange in Europe is no longer an issue as the majority of countries use the Euro.'
CYCLE:
(noun) Series, sequence. For example: 'Students may be required to describe a process for Task 1 of the writing exam, for example the Water Cycle which describes the journey of water from land to sky and back again.'

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