Monday, April 25, 2011

IELTS English Vocabulary - I - L

I
IDENTICAL:
(adjective) Exactly the same. 'Identical twins share the same genetic make up'.
IDENTIFY:
(verb) To tell the difference between; to recognise. Example: 'It is important to identify all parts of the graph before beginning to write your Task I essay'.
IDEOLOGY:
(noun) Belief system, values. Example: 'The ideology of left wing and right wing political parties is different in a number of ways'.

IGNORANT:
(adjective) Unaware, lacking knowledge. 'Travelling abroad broadens our knowledge and allows us to become less ignorant about other cultures.'
ILLUSTRATE:
(verb). Demonstrate, give an example, show. Example: 'The example used in the lecture illustrated the theory we were being taught.'
ILLUSTRATION:
(noun) A picture or diagram. Example: 'There is an illustration of the product on the box'.
IMAGE:
(noun). Impression, idea, view. Example: 'The behaviour of a country’s citizens abroad influences the image of the country itself.'
IMAGINARY:
(adjective) made up; unreal. Example: 'The characters in children's books are usually imaginary'.
IMMIGRATION:
(noun) Moving into a country which is not your place of birth. See also EMMIGRATION
Example: John is from England. He now lives in New Zealand. He has emmigrated from England and immigrated to New Zealand.
IMPACT:
Having an influence or effect on something.
IMPLEMENT:
(verb) To put into action, to start. Example: 'The changes will be implemented immediately'.
IMPLICATION:
(Noun) Consequence, related result. Example: 'The implications of abuse of drugs such as ecstasy are still unknown'.
IMPLICIT:
(adjective) Not spoken but understood between two or more parties. Example: 'We have an implicit agreement not to talk about the difficulty again. '
IMPLY:
(verb) Suggest, say something indirectly. Example: 'Although my boss didn’t so say directly, he implied that my having a holiday then would be inconvenient'.
IMPOSE:
(verb) Make compulsory, force. Example: 'In some countries, penalties are imposed on families who have more than one child'.
IN-DEPTH:
(adjective) Deeper, more detailed. Example: 'Market researchers often conduct in-depth interviews to find out specific and detailed information. '
INADVISABLE:
(adjective) Not recommended. Example: It is inadvisable to carry a lot of money in your wallet. It is better to keep it in a bank'.
INCENTIVE:
(noun) Offering to encourage someone to do something. Example: 'Incentives such as lower tax rates could encourage companies to expand their operations in rural areas'.
INCIDENCE:
(noun) occurance, situation. example: 'There have been a number of incidences where children who have watched violent movies have acted violently themselves'.
INCOME:
(noun) Money coming in (often for working). Example: 'It is important to have a job that gives a regular income'.
INCOMPLETE:
(adjective) Not whole, not finished. Example: 'An essay is incomplete without a conclusion'.
INCONVENIENT:
(adjective) Problematic, awkward, badly timed. Example: 'The meeting was inconvenient for everyone so the time was changed'.
(noun) INCONVENIENCE
INCORPORATE:
(verb) Include, add in. Example: Some parents believe it is wrong for schools to incorporate a sex education programme into their science classes.
INDEX:
(noun) Contents list  Example: The quickest way to search for content is to look in the index.
INDICATE:
(verb) To show or suggest. Example: "He indicated that he was bored."
(noun = INDICATION) A sign showing or suggesting something.
INDIFFERENCE:
(noun)The state of not having an opinion one way or another. Example: 'He showed his indifference clearly through his comment that he didn't care who won the election'.
INDUSTRY:
(noun) Manufacturing and processing. Example: 'The service sector is often bigger than the manufacturing industry in many developed countries'.
INEQUALITY:
(noun) A difference, something that is not equal. Example: "Even today, there are inequalities in the workplace for men and women'.
INEVITABLE:
(adjective) Unavoidable, certain. For example: 'With advances in medical treatment, it is inevitable that the aging population will grow.'
INFER:
(verb) Assume, suppose, suggest. For example: 'The message received infers there will be trouble ahead.'
INFORM:
(verb) To tell, to notify. Example: 'You should inform the police if you see a crime'.
INFRASTRUCTURE:
(noun) Network, roads and rail. For example: 'Government investment in the public transport infrasturcture will help encourage more people to use public transport.'
INFRINGEMENT:
(noun) A violation, a breach, an act against something. Example: 'Some people believe that having to carry identification cards is an infrigement of our right to privacy.'
INHERENT:
(adjective) Essential, intrinsic. Hard work and dedication are inherent to success.
INHIBIT:
(verb) Hold back, prevent. For example: 'Excess criticism can inhibit a child's confidence to try new things.'
INITIAL:
(adjective) First, preliminary, original. For example: 'My initial impressions of my new job were negative, though now I enjoy it.'
INITIATE:
(verb) Start, begin, make the first move. For example: 'The Government should initiate a move towards more responsible recycling of rubbish.'
INJURE:
(verb) hurt, harm. For example: 'Insurance often does not cover individuals who injure themselves whilst taking part in dangerous sports.'
INNOVATE:
(verb) make something new, something up to date. For example: 'The company needs to innovate its image and products to attract younger customers who currently think it is old fashioned.'
INPUT:
(noun)Contribution of ideas, opinions, effort. For example: 'The CEO asked for my input at the meeting, which shows he values my ideas.'
INSERT:
(verb) Put in, include, add in. For example: 'Illustrations are often inserted into a text to make the information more interesting.'
INSIGHT:
(noun) Understanding, knowledge of a situation. For example: 'World news reports allow people from developed countries an insight into the suffering of people in the developing world'
INSPECT:
(verb) Check, examine. For example: 'The landlord will come to inspect our apartment for damage before we move out next week'
INSTANCE:
(noun) Situation, case, occasion. For example: 'In this instance you will not be required to pay, though there is usually a fee'
INSTITUTE:
(noun) Institution, organization. For example: 'The institution, which is responsible for medical research, was founded in 1970.'
INSTRUCT:
(verb) Command, order. For example: 'The company has instructed workers not to talk to the media about the problem'
INSTRUCTIONS:
 (noun) What you have to do. For example: His instructions were to deliver the package to Mr Jones.
INSURMOUNTABLE:
(adjective) Cannot be solved or overcome. 'An insurmountable problem'
INTEGRAL:
(adjective) Essential, central. For example: 'Useful learning outcomes are intergral to a good education system'
INTEGRATE:
(verb) Mix in, become part of, join together. For example: 'It is useful for immigrants to speak the language of the country they live if they wish to integrate properly into the community.'
INTEGRITY:
(noun) Having honesty, honour and reliability. For example: 'He is well respected and known for his integrity.'
INTELLIGENCE:
(noun) Having intellect, cleverness. For example: 'A sound education will allow anyone to develop their intelligence'
INTERACT:
(verb) The way people or things act and react to each other. Example: 'When children go to nursery school or kindergarten, they can interact with others their own age'.
INTERCHANGE:
(verb) Subsitute, use two things for the same purpose. Example: 'Native speakers of English interchange going to and the present continuous to talk about future plans and arrangements'.
INTERFERE:
(verb) Become too involved in something that does not concern you (often your help is not wanted). Example: 'Some teenagers believe that their parents interfere too much in their decisions.'
INTERFERE WITH:
(verb) To have an impact on, to disturb, to interrupt. Example: 'It is important your native language does not interefere with people's ability to understand you when speaking English.'
INTERMEDIATE:
(adjective) Mid-level. For example: 'Students with an intermediate level of English have problems getting a high IELTS result.'
INTERNAL:
(adjective) Inside, within. 'Companies often conduct internal audits to be sure operations are running correctly'.
INTERPRET:
(verb) Translate into another language. For example: 'The President's speech was interpreted into a number of languages.'
INTERPRETATION:
(noun) Understanding, explanation. For example: 'The newspaper's interpretation of events was very different to the information I saw on the news.'
INTERVAL:
(noun) Gap, break. For example: 'The weather forecast says it will rain most of tomorrow but that there will be brief sunny intervals.'
INTERVENE:
(verb) Get involved, interfere. For example:'The State should not intervene in the domestic affairs of its citizens'
INTRANSITIVE VERB:
(noun) A verb that requires an object. Example: like, meet.
INTRINSIC:
(adjective) essential, vital, fundamental. For example: 'Fair discipline procedures are intrinsic to the successful running of a school'
INVERSE:
(adjective) Opposite; converse; opposing. Example: 'There is an inverse relationship when something increases as the other decreases'.
INVERT:
(verb) To switch around, to reverse, to change order. Example: 'It is possible to invert your sentence structure to show a wider range of structures in your writing. There was an increase in sales last month could become Last month, there was an increase in sales.'
INVEST:
(verb) put in, devote (time, effort, money). For example: 'Parents invest a great deal of time, energy and money into the raising of their children.'
INVESTIGATE:
(verb) Look into, probe. For example: 'The police are currently investigating the crime and hope to find the culprit soon.'
INVOLVE:
(verb) include, comprise. For example: 'Setting up a new business involves a great deal of planning, risk and hard work.'
IRRELEVANT:
(adjective) Not useful or connected to the subject. Example: 'You need to make sure that the points you include in your IELTS essay are related to the question. Do not include any irrelevant points.'
IRRESPONSIBLE:
(adjective) Not showing responsibility or maturity. Example: 'It is irresponsible to drive while under the influence of alcohol'.
ISOLATED:
(adjective) Cut off, lonely, seperate. For example: 'University students can often feel isolated at first when they move to a new town away from their friends and family.'
ISSUE:
(noun) Subject, topic, matter. For example: 'The internet is a useful tool for keeping people informed of global issues.'
ITALICS:
(noun) A style of writing in which the letters of the words lean to the right. This sentence is written in italics.
ITEM:
(noun) Thing, article. For example: 'The packaging of a huge number of items on our weekly shopping list is unneccessary and damaging to the environment.'
J
JOB:
(noun) work, role. For example: 'Getting an interesting and well-paid job is the goal for most university graduates.'
JOURNAL:
(noun) academic publication, academic paper, periodical. For example: 'Journals can sometimes be difficult to read as the language used is very academic.'
JUSTIFY:
(verb) Give good reason for, rationalise, excuse. For example: 'Governments should be made to justify the high salaries of politicians.'
K
KEEP IN TOUCH:
To stay in communication with someone.
KEYWORDS:
(noun) The main words in a sentence that express the main ideas. Example: 'In the reading test, you can find answers quickly and efficiently by looking for keywords.'
L
LABEL:
(verb) Mark, identify. For example: 'Unhealthy foods containing additives or with high fat or sugar content should be clearly labelled.'
(noun) A tag showing title or information. Example: 'In the IELTS test you should read any labels that are given on diagrams'.
LABOUR:
(noun) work. For example: 'It is more beneficial to society to set up Labour Schemes for non-violent criminals rather than imprison them.'
LACK:
(verb) Not have something that is considered desirable or needed. Example: 'Many elderly people lack the ability to surf the internet.'
LAW:
(noun) Decision made by a government; rule of a country. Example: 'The government has just passed a law making it illegal to use a mobile phone while driving'.
LAYER:
(noun) level, tier. For example: 'There are many layers to this problem.'
LECTURE:
(noun) university lesson, class. For example: 'I often take a dictophone to my lectures as it can be difficult to understand all of the information.'
LECTURER:
 (noun) Similar to a teacher but presenting more academic subjects, often to a large group of people
LEGAL:
(adjective) Lawful, authorised by law. For example: 'The death penalty is still legal in a number of countries.'
LEGALISE:
(verb) Make legal. Example: Some people believe that drugs such as cannabis should be legalised'.
LEGISLATE:
(verb) Pass laws. For example: 'Many people believe that the Government legislates in private matters which do not concern it.'
LEGISLATION:
(noun) Legal matters; law. Example: 'The government has introduced new legislation relating to schools.'
LESS ADVANTAGED:
(comparative adjective) Referring to people who have less than average (commonly referring to money or opportunities). Example: 'It is difficult for less advantaged families to be able to buy their own home'.
LEVY:
(noun) tax. For example: 'Levies in the country are so high that for finacial reasons people are choosing to live abroad.'
LEXICAL:
(adjective) Talking about vocabulary (words). For example: 'He has a good lexical ability - he knows a lot of words'
LIBERAL:
(adjective) broad-minded, tolerant. For example: 'Some people believe society is too liberal and that we should return to more traditional values.'
LICENCE:
(noun) Having the necessary qualifications. Example: A driver's licence, a doctor's license
LIFE EXPECTANCY:
(noun phrase) A prediction of the average time a person will live. Example: 'Life expectancy in Japan is one of the highest in the world.'
LIKEWISE:
(adverb) Similarly, in the same way. For example: 'Some people see no benefit in the arts and likewise have no interest in learning more about them.'
LIMIT:
 (noun) A top or bottom point. For example: If you drink three bottles of beer, you are over the limit to be able to drive.
LIMITATIONS:
(noun) Drawbacks, weak points, short comings. Example: 'Although the argument has some good points, there are also some limitations.'
LIMITED:
(adjective) Restricted, kept within a certain amount. Example: 'You have to answer some IELTS questions in a limited number of words.'
LINK:
(noun) Relationship, connection. For example: 'Experts now believe there is a link between diet and bad behaviour in children.'
(verb) To make a connection, to join.
LINKING WORD:
(noun phrase) A word used to connect ideas. For example: and, yet, however.
LOCATE:
(verb) Find. track down. For example: 'I could not locate the street on the map and had to ask for directions.'
LOGIC:
(noun) Reason, sense, common sense. For example: 'The majority of people cannot see the logic behind the recent decision.'
LOGICAL:
(adjective) Makes sense, is reasonable. Example: 'It is important to take a logical approach to the IELTS exam'.
(adverb: logically)
LOYAL:
To be faithful to someone or something. Example: 'Dogs are very loyal pets'.

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