Monday, April 25, 2011

IELTS English Vocabulary - P

P
PARADIGM:
(noun) Example, model. For example: 'A paradigm to illustrate the situation follows.'
PARAGRAPH:
(noun) Section of a text. For example: 'It is important to use paragraphs in essay writing as it is easier for the reader to follow the key ideas.'
PARALLEL:
(adjective) Similar, matching, equivalent. For example: 'It is important for couples to have parrallel goals in life and beliefs.'

PARAMETER:
(noun) limit, boundary. For example: 'The parameters of our knowledge are expanding all the time.'
PARAPHRASE:
(verb) To write about something again in another form or other words.
PARTICIPATE:
(verb) Take part in, join, join in. For example: 'Over 200 companies will participate in next week's exhibition.'
PARTICULARLY:
(adverb) To a great degree; especially. Example: 'It is important to write clearly, particularly in your IELTS exam'.
PARTNER:
(verb) Unite, connect, link up. For example: 'The two companies intend to partner together for the purpose of the project.'
PASSAGE:
(noun) A piece of reading with more than one paragraph. Example: 'In the IELTS reading test, you have to answer questions about the passages given'.
PASSIVE:
(adjective) Not active, learnt through exposure not action. For example: 'We are influenced in a passive way by many factors in our lives.'
PASSIVE TENSE:
A grammar term for a sentence that changes the subject and object. For example: 'Someone has stolen my car' (active) becomes 'My car has been stolen' (passive).
PATIENCE:
(noun) Quality of being tolerant, understanding or calm. Example: 'When working with teenagers, it is necessary to have patience'.
PATIENT:
(noun) Someone who is receiving medical care
(adjective) Tolerant, understanding, calm. For example: 'When training a dog, you need to be patient. Shouting at the animal will not help.'
PENALISE:
(verb) To punish, to give a penalty. Example: 'Students who hand in their assignments late are penalised by losing a percentage of their marks'.
PENALTY:
(noun) Punishment; fine; consequence. Example: 'The penalty for driving over the speed limit is strict in many countries.'
PERCEIVE:
(verb) Understand, comprehend. For example: 'The attitudes of our parents influence the way in which we perceive the world.'
PERCENT:
(noun) proportion out of a hundred (%). For example: 'According to the chart less than 8 percent of people never watch television.'
PERIOD:
(noun) Phase, time. For example: 'While summer was very busy the company is now experiencing a quiet period.'
PERSPECTIVE:
(noun) Point of view, outlook, perception. For example: 'It is important to consider the situation from more than one perspective.'
PHASE:
(noun) Period of time, temporary period. For example: 'Many of us go through phases in our life when we have negative experiences.'
PHENOMENON:
(noun) Occurence, happening. For example: 'As our understanding increases many previously unexplained phenomena can now be understood.'
Phenomenon - single
Phenomena - plural
PHILOSOPHY:
(noun) Viewpoint, way of life. For example: 'Many traditional business philosophies are still taught and useful today.'
PHYSICAL:
(adjective) Bodily. For example: 'Physical beauty is often wrongly valued over personality in our society.'
PLURAL:
(grammar term) More than one. Example: 'The plural of shoe is shoes.'
PLUS:
(conjunction) More, added to. Example: Everything is half price plus they are giving away free accessories.
POINT OF VIEW:
(noun phrase) An opinion . Example: 'It can sometimes be difficult to understand other peoples' points of view.'
POLICY:
(noun) Rule, strategy, plan. For example: 'The change in immigration policy has resulted in more people immigrating to the country.'
POPULATION:
The total number of people living in a place. For example: 'The population of Japan is over 120 million.'
PORTION:
(noun) part, piece. For example: 'The company invests a significant portion of its profits into research and development.'
POSITIVE:
(adjective) In support, not negative. For example: 'Customers' reaction to the new product has been positive and sales are expected to increase..'
POTENTIAL:
(noun) The full possible extent of ability or excellence. Example: 'The course allows trainees to perform in their job to their full potential'
(adjective) Possible, probable, likely. For example: 'The idea has a lot of potential benefits if put into place carefully.'
POVERTY:
(noun) The state of being poor (opposite=wealth) Example: 'A large proportion of the developing world lives in poverty.'
PRACTIONER:
(noun) A person with a professional skill. For example: 'A general practioner or G.P. refers patients to specialist doctors when necessary.'
PRECEDE:
(verb) come before, preface. For example: 'He preceded his presentation with a welcome speech.'
PRECISE:
(adjective) Accurate, exact. For example: 'The information given at the meeting was very precise.'
PREDICT:
(verb) Foretell, estimate. For example: 'Experts predict that house prices will continue to rise.'
PREDICTION:
(noun) A guess, an estimation about the future. Example: 'The prediciton that the world's population will rise is probably correct.'
PREDOMINANT:
(adjective) Main, most common. For example: 'The predominant reason people commit crime is lack of money.'
PREFERENCE:
(noun) A preferred choice; something you would rather have/do. Example: 'They are both good universities, but my preference would be to study at the university in my hometown'.
PRELIMINARY:
(adjective) Initial, first. For example: 'A preliminary hearing is often held before a major court case goes to trial.'
PREPOSITION:
(noun) A part of grammar that tells you about place or time. Examples:
on the table
between the chairs
at 12 p.m.
PRESSURE:
A force or a feeling that something has to be done.
PRESUME:
(noun) Assume, suppose. For example: 'In many legal systems someone accused of commiting a crime is presumed innocent until proven guilty.'
PREVIOUS:
(adjective) Earlier, prior, before. For example: 'The research results are similar to and support those in the previous study.'
PRIMARILY:
 (adverb) Most importantly, firstly
PRIMARY:
(adjective) Main, most important. For example: 'The primary cause of skin cancer is over-exposure to the sun.'
PRIME:
(adjective) Major, key. For example: 'His experience and qualifications make him a prime candidate for promotion.'
PRINCIPAL:
(noun) Head or boss of an operation (often a school). Example: 'The school will have a new Principal from next semester'.
PRINCIPLE:
(noun) Idea, standard, belief. For example: 'The principle behind offering free university education is to give equal opportunites to all.'
PRIOR:
(adjective) Previous, earlier. For example: 'In the years prior to cheaper air travel, few people had the opportunity to experience different countries and their cultures.'
PRIORITY:
(noun) Factor of number one importance. For example: 'The main priority when parents divorce should be the well-being of the children.'
PROCEED:
(verb) Go forward, begin, carry on. 'Please proceed without me as I will be unable to attend the meeting'.
PROCESS:
(verb) Procedure, way of doing something. For example: 'IELTS task 1 writing may involve describing a process, such as, for example, whiskey-making.'
PROFESSIONAL:
(adjective) Specialised, qualified, skilled or trained in a given area For example: 'The country needs to attract more professional people into its workforce.'
(noun) Relating to people working in an educated field such as lawyers and accountants.
PROHIBIT:
(verb) ban, do not allow by law. For example: 'Laws exist which prohibit the sale of alcohol and cigarettes to children.'
PROJECT:
(Noun) An undertaking involving effort. For example: 'Improving public healthcare is a significant project for the Government.'
PROMOTE:
(verb) Advertise, publicise An undertaking involving effort. For example: 'Improving public healthcare is a significant project for the Government.'
PROMOTION:
(noun) A raise in your job position. Example: 'He was given a promotion from sales assistant to sales manager'
PROMPT:
(noun) Something used to help organise and structure ideas. Example: 'Good public speakers write notes in the form of prompts to help them give a speech.'
PROPORTION:
(Noun) Amount, quantity, part. For example: 'A number of companies donate a proportion of their profits to charity every year.'
PROPOSED:
(adjective) suggested, planned. Example: 'The proposed building was rejected because of the cost'.
(verb) PROPOSE To suggest, to plan
(noun) PROPOSAL A suggestion, a suggested plan
PROSPECT:
(Noun) Opportunity, option, chance. For example: 'The computer industry offers a range of job prospects to qualified people.'
PROTOCOL:
(Noun) Code of conduct, set of rules. For example: 'Employees of the company are expected to follow a strict protocol.'
PROVIDE:
(verb) To give or offer. Example: 'IELTS students need to provide evidence and examples to support their opinions.'
PSYCHOLOGY:
(Noun) Mental processes and behaviour, thoughts and emotions. For example: 'Human psychology is extremely complex.'
PUBLIC TRANSPORT:
Buses and trains for example.
PUBLICATION:
(Noun) Printed work i.e. book, magazine, newspaper, journal. For example: 'The author's new publication is said to be his best.'
PUBLISH:
(Verb) Make public, make known. For example: 'Not all facts are published and the General Public may not be aware of the dangers.'
PUNCTUAL:
Not late / on time.
PURCHASE:
(Verb) Buy. For example: 'Identification is often required in order to purchase alcohol.'
PURSUE:
(Verb) Go in for, take up, engage in. For example: 'A number of teachers are becoming disillusioned with teaching and are pursuing different careers.'
Q
QUALIFYING WORD:
(grammar term) A word that gives more information to the main subject. Example: 'Tokyo is a lot more crowded than Auckland'.
QUOTE:
(Verb) Cite, refer to the words of another. For example: 'No more than two or three sentences should be directly quoted from another author in academic writing.'

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